In this article, data on employment are used to estimate affiliate shares of the U.S. economy because these data can be disaggregated on the basis of industry of sales, a basis that approximates the disaggregation of the data for all U.S. businesses on the basis of industry of establishment. Thus, the data on affiliate employment can be used to calculate the affiliate shares of the U.S. economy at a greater level of detail than can be calculated using the gross-product or other data, which can only be disaggregated on the basis of industry of affiliate./1/
In the classification by industry of sales, the affiliate's employment (and sales) data are distributed among all of the industries in which it reports sales. As a result, employment classified by industry of sales should approximate that classified by industry of establishment (or plant), because an affiliate that has an establishment in an industry usually also has sales in that industry./2/
In the classification by industry of affiliate, all of the operations data (including the employment data) for an affiliate are assigned to that affiliate's "primary" industrythe industry in which it has the most sales./3/ As a result, any affiliate operations that take place in secondary industries will be classified as operations in the primary industry.
The pattern of change in employment by industry of sales may differ from the pattern by industry of affiliate, because changes in employment in the affiliate's secondary industries may not parallel those in their primary industries. In addition, changes in the classification of affiliates may have different effects on the distribution of employment among industries.
1. Establishment-level data from a joint project of BEA and the Bureau of the Census can be used to calculate affiliate shares of U.S. economic activity at an even greater level of detail. These data show each four-digit manufacturing industry in the Standard Industrial Classification; they are currently available for 198791. The data for 1990 are analyzed in "Characteristics of Foreign-Owned U.S. Manufacturing Establishments," SURVEY 74 (January 1994): 3459. The data for 1991 are analyzed in "Differences in Foreign-Owned U.S. Manufacturing Establishments by Country of Owner," SURVEY 76 (March 1996): 4360.
2. However, if one establishment of an affiliate provides all of its output to another establishment of the affiliate, the affiliate will not have sales in the industry of the first establishment. For example, if an affiliate operates both a metal mine and a metal-manufacturing plant and if the entire output of the mine is used by the manufacturing plant, all of the affiliate's sales will be in metal manufacturing, and none in metal mining. When the mining employees are distributed by industry of sales, they are classified in manufacturing even though the industry of the establishment is mining.
3. An affiliate's primary industry is based on a breakdown of the affiliate's sales by three-digit International Surveys Industry Classification code. These codes are adapted from the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1987.