Table 8.—Principal Source Data and Estimating Methods for Gross Output

Industry/1/ Current dollars Chained dollars
Extrapolator or interpolator of benchmark values/2/ Price index for deflation or quantity extrapolator of base-year value
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing:
FarmsCash receipts from marketings, inventory change, and other receipts from USDAPrices received by farmers from USDA.
Agricultural servicesReceipts for agricultural services, forestry, and fishing from IRS tabulations of business tax returns less gross output of forestry and fishingIndex of selected prices paid by farmers from USDA.
ForestryShipments of logging camps and contractors from Census Bureau quinquennial census and annual surveyPPI's.
FishingValue of fish landed from NOAAFish landed from NOAA.
Mining:
Metal miningPhysical quantity produced times average price: For uranium, physical quantity and average price from DOE; for all others, quantities and prices from USGSQuantity produced from USGS.
Coal miningPhysical quantity produced times average price, both from DOEQuantity produced from DOE.
Oil and gas extractionPhysical quantity produced times average price, both from DOE, except natural gas liquids (PPI)Quantity produced from DOE.
Oil and gas field servicesPetroleum and natural gas well drilling and exploration: Footage drilled and cost per foot from trade sourceFootage drilled from trade source.
Nonmetallic minerals, except fuelsPhysical quantity produced times average price, both from USGSQuantity produced from USGS.
Construction:
For the Department of DefenseExpenditures from DODFor most military construction, BEA indexes based on DOD prices; for other construction, cost indexes from trade sources and government agencies.
For State and local highwaysExpenditures from Census Bureau annual survey of government spendingFor new construction, cost indexes from government agencies; for maintenance and repair, CPI for home maintenance and repair services.
For private electric and gas utilitiesExpenditures from Federal regulatory agencies and trade sourcesCost indexes from trade sources and government agencies.
For farms, excluding residentialExpenditures from USDACost index from trade source and price deflator for new single-family houses under construction from Census Bureau.
For other nonresidential:
New constructionValue put in place from Census Bureau construction surveyCost indexes from trade sources and government agencies and price deflator for new single-family houses under construction from Census Bureau.
Maintenance and repairValue put in place from Census Bureau construction surveyCPI for home maintenance and repair services.
For other residential:
New constructionValue put in place from Census Bureau construction surveyPrice deflator for new single-family houses under construction from Census Bureau.
Maintenance and repairExpenditures by owner-occupants from BLS survey and by landlords from Census Bureau surveyCPI for home maintenance and repair services.
ManufacturingShipments and inventory change from Census Bureau annual surveyPPI's, BEA computer price index, BEA semiconductor price index, and BEA price indexes based on DOD prices paid for military equipment.
Transportation:
Railroad transportationTotal operating revenue for Class I railroads and
AMTRAK
Composite index of IPD for Class I freight, from revenue ton-miles from trade source, and of IPD for AMTRAK passenger, from passenger miles from NRPC.
Local and interurban passenger transit:
TaxicabsPCECPI for taxi fares.
Intercity busesOperating revenues from trade sourcePassenger miles from ICC and trade source.
School busesWages and salaries from BLSEmployment from BLS.
Other local transitOperating revenues of private local transit systems from trade sourcePassenger trips from trade source.
Trucking and warehousingFor 1977-83, operating revenues for Class I motor carriers of property from ICC; for 1984 forward, Census Bureau annual surveyTon-miles from trade source.
Transportation by airOperating revenues of air carriers and of Federal Express from DOT and public sourcesFor passenger, revenue passenger miles for domestic and for international travel from DOT. For freight and mail, ton-miles for domestic and international freight and for domestic and international mail from DOT. For all other, composite index of IPD for passenger, freight, and mail.
Pipelines, except natural gasOperating revenues from trade sourceTon-miles from trade source.
Communications:
Radio and television broadcastingAdvertising expenditures from trade source; PCE for cable televisionFor advertising, cost indexes from trade source. For cable television, CPI for cable television.
Telephone and telegraphFor 1977-92, revenues from FCC. For 1992 forward, Census Bureau annual surveyPPI's.
Electric, gas, and sanitary services:
Electric utilitiesFor private utilities, revenues from DOE. For rural cooperatives, revenues from USDAKilowatt hours from trade source.
Gas utilitiesRevenues of gas pipeline and utilities from trade source.BTU's from trade source.
Sanitary servicesReceipts from IRS tabulations of business tax returnsCPI for water and sewerage maintenance.
Wholesale trade:
Merchant wholesalersRatio of gross margin to sales (margin rate) times sales: For 1977-82, margin rate from quinquennial census and sales from Census Bureau annual survey; for 1983 forward, both from annual surveySales deflated by PPI's.
Manufacturers' sales branches and sales officesFor equipment rental, interpolation of quinquennial census receipts; for 1993 forward, judgmental trend. For other receipts, manufacturing shipments from Census Bureau annual surveyFor equipment rental, IPD from BEA capital stock statistics. For other receipts, shipments deflated by PPI's.
Agents and brokersMerchant wholesalers margin rate times sales: For 1977-82, margin rate from quinquennial census and sales from Census Bureau annual survey; for 1983 forward, both from annual surveyMerchant wholesalers sales deflated by PPI's.
Retail trade:
Eating and drinking placesSales from quinquennial census and from Census Bureau annual surveyCPI's.
OtherRatio of gross margin to sales (margin rate) times sales: For 1977-82, margin rate from quinquennial census and sales from Census Bureau annual survey; for 1983 forward, both from annual surveySales deflated by CPI's.
Finance, insurance, and real estate:
Security and commodity brokersSecurities commissions, revenue from sale of investment company securities, profits on underwriting/selling, gains on trading accounts and other revenues excluding interest, and revenues earned by exchanges; receipt items from SEC and interest from SEC and BEAFor securities commissions, number of public securities orders from SEC and trade sources; for mutual funds, IPD for securities commissions; for underwriting, new securities registrations from SEC and trade sources; for other revenue for 1977-87, BEA price from trade source data on merger and acquisition fees; for all others, IPD for GDP.
Insurance carriersNet premiums for health, auto, accident, property, and workers' compensation insurance from trade sources; PCE for expense of handling life insuranceFor health and life insurance, IPD's for PCE. For all others, composite index of BEA IPD for workers' compensation and CPI for auto and property insurance.
Insurance agents, brokers, and serviceReceipts from IRS tabulations of business tax returnsInsurance carrier deflators weighted by commissions from trade source.
Real estate:
Nonfarm housing servicesPCE for owner- and tenant-occupied nonfarm dwellingsIPD for PCE.
Services:
Hotels and other lodging placesReceipts from Census Bureau quinquennial census and annual surveyRoom-rate index from trade source.
Personal servicesReceipts from Census Bureau quinquennial census and annual surveyCPI's.
Automotive repair, services, and parkingReceipts from Census Bureau quinquennial census and annual surveyCPI's.
Miscellaneous repair servicesReceipts from Census Bureau quinquennial census and annual surveyCPI's and average annual earnings from BLS.
Motion picturesReceipts from Census Bureau quinquennial census and annual surveyCPI for admissions.
Amusement and recreation servicesReceipts from Census Bureau quinquennial census and annual surveyCPI's.
Health services:
HospitalsReceipts from trade sourcesHCFA index of input prices and CPI for hospital room. PPI beginning in 1993.
Other health servicesReceipts from Census Bureau quinquennial census and annual surveyCPI's and HCFA index of input prices. PPI for physicians services beginning in 1994.
Legal servicesReceipts from Census Bureau quinquennial census and annual surveyCPI for legal services.
Educational servicesPCE for private educationIPD for PCE.

1. Source data and estimating methods apply to both the 1972 SIC and 1987 SIC definition of the industries shown in this table. Industry titles are 1987 SIC titles.

2. Benchmark values are derived from the 1977, 1982, and 1987 input-output (I-O) tables. Preliminary I-O data are used as benchmarks for 1992. Gross output estimates are prepared only for industries for which the double-deflation method is used for estimating real GPO.

BEA Bureau of Economic Analysis

BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics

CPI Consumer Price Index (BLS)

DOC U.S. Department of Commerce

DOD U.S. Department of Defense

DOE U.S. Department of Energy

DOT U.S. Department of Transportation

FCC Federal Communications Commission

HFCA Health Care Financing Administration

ICC Interstate Commerce Commission

IPD Implicit price deflator (BEA)

IRS Internal Revenue Service

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NRPC National Railroad Passenger Corporation

PCE Personal consumption expenditures (BEA)

PPI Producer Price Index (BLS)

SEC Securities and Exchange Commission

USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture

USGS U.S. Geological Survey (Office of Minerals, formerly Bureau of the Mines)

DCSIMG