Table 2.1.—Research and Development Expenditures by Performer, Showing Source of Funds

[Millions of dollars]

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
Research and development expenditures, total13,73520,34326,76536,79465,185115,435127,390134,880142,918153,448162,818169,308
Private11,44016,02620,71528,16051,58794,146103,336109,042115,098123,782131,774136,922
By industry10,60613,88317,85824,12444,50783,66390,89895,590100,679108,246115,328119,508
From industry/1/4,465 6,47310,42515,97531,29357,83962,03367,32274,29382,44491,32197,296
From Federal Government6,1377,4067,4208,11413,15525,74828,76628,15326,27325,69023,89822,105
From State and local governments441335597699115113112109107
By FFRDC's administered by industryn.a. 3734737271,2771,8632,3512,5382,6322,7642,7222,746
From Federal Governmentn.a.3734737271,2771,8632,3512,5382,6322,7642,7222,746
By private universities and colleges3356749871,3332,2963,3984,2124,6395,0445,4405,7736,169
From industry16172747102230303335370400424453
From Federal Government2615587881,0301,8032,5373,0933,3833,6353,8824,0834,386
From State and local governments71124354673100115128137141136
From private universities and colleges17376383173297374414464523591631
From other/2/34 5185138172261342392447498534563
By FFRDC's administered by private universities and colleges/3/ 2083754626621,3801,9362,3832,5852,6832,7502,8492,844
From Federal Government2063754596581,3771,9192,3702,5722,6722,7392,8342,827
From other2034317131311111517
By FFRDC's administered by private nonprofit institutions68202261241476707590567584652740821
From Federal Government67200248224443657549527543607688764
From other1213173350414041455257
By other nonprofit institutions/4/2235196741,0731,6512,5792,9023,1233,4763,9304,3624,834
From industry486292123198356467517587655717752
From Federal Government1073354216871,0621,5691,6241,6811,8492,1332,4032,752
From State and local governments224141719354339353535
From other661201572493746357768821,0011,1071,2071,295
Government2,2954,3176,0508,63413,59821,28924,05425,83827,82029,66631,04432,386
By Federal Government/5/1,7463,1494,1705,6168,09812,51313,33414,00514,81815,54215,85616,340
By State and local governments (excluding universities and colleges)5487176297446613710816866909946991
From Federal Government263882131157175140192234245255267
From State and local governments264790156274426557611615646672704
From other224101512131317181920
By State and local universities and colleges3358341,4112,2874,0766,4328,0208,9379,97310,95811,88612,740
From industry23233773157372507570663752811874
From Federal Government1675458931,4052,4753,5174,2424,7525,2305,6666,1296,707
From State and local governments791312053134667189311,0151,1221,2341,3361,360
From State and local universities and colleges47911913567291,3851,8272,0192,3012,5772,8072,928
From other/2/19 4485140249440513581657729803871
By FFRDC's administered by governments1602472934349781,7311,9902,0802,1632,2572,3562,315
From Federal Government1602472934329671,7061,9712,0592,1352,2262,3252,285
From other00021125192128313130

n.a. Not separately available, included in industry.

1. Includes funds from nonprofit institutions and from the rest of the world.

2. Includes funds from nonprofit institutions.

3. Includes FFRDC's administered by consortia of public and private universities and colleges.

4. Nonprofit institutions are divided into four subgroups: Private universities and colleges, FFRDC's administered by universities and colleges, FFRDC's administered by nonprofit institutions, and other nonprofit institutions.

5. Includes R&D performed at Federal universities and colleges.

NOTE.—This table shows R&D expenditures and the breakdown of expenditures by private organizations and government organizations. Within the "private" and "government" categories, lines preceded by the word "by" are "performers." Within "performer" categories, lines preceded by the word "from" are "sources."

FFRDC Federally funded research and development center

Table 2.2

Table 2.3

Table 2.4