Table 4.1.—Research and Development Expenditures by Performer in Constant Dollars

[Millions of 1987 dollars]

1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992
Research and development expenditures, total55,69773,32775,66872,92289,660121,871127,390130,427132,253136,493140,435141,410
Private44,37355,44156,98754,51669,93898,881103,336105,700106,732110,545114,508115,186
Industry/1/40,48947,94249,10147,13461,36489,55093,24995,25295,95999,392103,045103,405
Private universities and colleges2,149 3,9684,1833,6153,9343,8144,2124,3944,5054,5714,5834,643
FFRDC's administered by private universities and colleges6791,1471,1171,1441,7962,0252,3832,5262,5172,4922,4942,414
FFRDC's administered by private nonprofit institutions213556604406598730590562562612673726
Other nonprofit institutions/2/8431,8281,9822,2172,2462,7622,9022,9663,1893,4783,7133,998
Government11,32417,88618,68118,40619,72222,99024,05424,72725,52125,94825,92726,224
Federal Government8,72012,53912,11811,28611,13813,20213,33413,49413,80313,90513,68413,763
State and local governments (excluding universities and colleges)206308516615607657710775795805805819
State and local universities and colleges1,8954,3565,3885,8026,7427,3188,0208,4068,8479,1389,3049,602
FFRDC's administered by governments503 6836597031,2351,8131,9902,0522,0762,1002,1342,040

1. Includes FFRDC's administered by industry.

2. Nonprofit institutions are divided into four subgroups: Private universities and colleges, FFRDC's administered by universities and colleges, FFRDC's administered by nonprofit institutions, and other nonprofit institutions.

FFRDC Federally funded research and development center