Arts and Culture Grow for Fourth Straight Year
New State-level Data Available for the First Time
The Arts and Cultural Production Satellite Account (ACPSA) released today by the U.S. Department of Commerce's Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) show that arts and cultural economic activity nationwide increased an inflation-adjusted 4.9 percent in 2015. That compares with a 0.4 percent increase in 2014 (table 1). Arts and cultural economic activity accounted for 4.2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), or $763.6 billion, in 2015 (table 2).
Information services was the leading contributor to the national growth in 2015. Core arts and cultural production industries, including performing arts, design services, fine arts education, and education services, increased 4.9 percent. Supporting arts and cultural production industries, including art support services and information services, increased 4.8 percent.
Real Value Added for Arts and Culture Industries Nationwide
- For the performing arts aggregate, which includes performing arts companies, promoters of performing arts and similar events, agents/managers for artists, independent artists, writers, and performers, real valued added increased 6.2 percent in 2015, after increasing 4.6 percent in 2014. The increase was primarily attributed to an increase in independent artists, writers, and performers.
- For design services, which include seven industries ranging from advertising to all other design services, real value added increased 6.7 percent in 2015, after increasing 5.6 percent. The leading contributor to the increase was architectural services, which increased 10.0 percent.
- Fine arts education services increased 2.4 percent in 2015, after increasing 5.1 percent.
- Education services decreased 0.2 percent in 2015, after increasing 1.7 percent.
Nominal Value Added. Nominal value added (not adjusted for inflation) increased 6.3 percent nationally in 2015 (table 2). It increased 8.1 percent in the core arts and cultural production industries, to a level of $153.0 billion. The increase was primarily attributed to an increase in design services, which include advertising and architectural services (table 3).
Nominal value added increased 5.9 percent in the supporting arts and cultural production industries, to a level of $583.8 billion. The increase was primarily attributed to an increase in information services, which include the motion pictures and broadcasting industries.
Today's release marks the first time BEA has released statistics on arts and cultural value added for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The arts and cultural share of total value added ranged from 8.4 percent in the District of Columbia to 1.3 percent in Delaware.
The top arts and cultural industries vary among the states. The top industries in the District of Columbia are government, broadcasting, and advertising (table 3). In New York, the top industries are motion pictures, broadcasting, and government. In California, the top industries are motion pictures, other information services, and broadcasting.
Value added in arts and cultural industries increased in 45 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. The percent change in value added in arts and cultural industries across all states ranged from 12.6 percent in Missouri to -5.9 percent in Kansas in 2015 (table 4).
- The broadcasting industry led growth in Missouri, Idaho, Florida, and Utah.
- The motion pictures industry led growth in Louisiana.
Employment. Arts and cultural employment nationwide increased 2.1 percent in 2015 (table 8). The total number of arts and cultural jobs for the nation was 4.92 million. Arts and cultural employment increased in 37 states and the District of Columbia. The percent change in arts and cultural employment across all states ranged from 5.5 percent in Georgia to -3.4 percent in Oklahoma.
Arts and cultural employment increased faster in Georgia than in any other state in 2015. Georgia had 133,960 jobs related to arts and culture, representing 3.1 percent of all jobs in the state. The motion pictures industry was the leading contributor to the increase in total arts and cultural employment in Georgia (table 9).
Updates to the Arts and Cultural Production Satellite Account. Today, BEA also released updated estimates of output, value added, intermediate inputs, employment, and compensation for 2013 and 2014. The updated statistics incorporate the most recent data from BEA's Industry and Regional Economic Accounts.
Important Notice. BEA's Arts and Cultural Production Satellite Account (ACPSA) is supported by funding from the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA).
This release makes available, for the first time, prototype estimates of ACPSA state value added for 2001 to 2015. The estimates are being released for evaluation and comment, and BEA requests suggestions for refinement and improvement. Comments can be addressed to email@example.com.
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- For more on BEA's statistics, see our monthly online journal, the Survey of Current Business.
- The time series of detailed annual statistics for 1998 through 2014 are available at Arts and Cultural Production
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- Access BEA data by registering for BEA's Data Application Programming Interface (API).
- U.S. Arts and Cultural Production Satellite Accounts: Overview, concepts, and methodology.
Defining 'Culture' in the context of Input-Output Tables for the Arts and Cultural Production Satellite Account. Culture can be defined in a variety of ways to include: language, traditions, beliefs and values. For this account, arts and cultural production is defined narrowly to include creative artistic activity; the goods and services produced by it; the goods and services produced in the support of it; and the construction of buildings in which it is taking place.
The Input-Output table is a valuable tool to identify and estimate the value of the 'creative chain.' This chain captures the economic value of the creation of a cultural product (composing a symphony) from its production (the performance being recorded in a studio), distribution (by various modes), and final consumption (by the listener).
ACPSA output: ACPSA output consists of all domestically produced goods and services purchased (for example, movie tickets or design services).
ACPSA employment: ACPSA employment consists of all wage-and-salary jobs where the workers are engaged in the production of ACPSA goods and services.
ACPSA compensation: ACPSA compensation consists of the remuneration (including wages and salaries, as well as benefits such as employer contributions to pension and health funds) payable to employees in return for their ACPSA work during a given year.
ACPSA value added: ACPSA value added consists of ACPSA output minus ACPSA intermediate consumption (for example, costumes rented by a performing arts companies or printing of the program for the show).
Current-dollar estimates are valued in the prices of the period when the transactions occurred–that is, at "market value." Also referred to as "nominal estimates" or as "current-price estimates."
Real values are inflation-adjusted estimates–that is, estimates that exclude the effects of price changes.
Quantities and prices. Quantities, or "real" measures, and prices are expressed as index numbers with a specified reference year equal to 100 (currently 2009). Quantity and price indexes are calculated using a Fisher-chained weighted formula that incorporates weights from two adjacent periods (quarters for quarterly data and annuals for annual data). "Real" dollar series are calculated by multiplying the published quantity index by the current-dollar value in the reference year (2009) and then dividing by 100. Percent changes calculated from chained-dollar levels and quantity indexes are conceptually the same; any differences are due to rounding.
Chained-dollar values are not additive because the relative weights for a given period differ from those of the reference year. In tables that display chained-dollar values, the value of the "Not allocated by industry" line reflects the difference between the first line and the sum of the most detailed lines. For the real value added by industry table, this value also reflect differences in source data used to estimate GDP by industry and the expenditures measure of real GDP".
List of News Release Tables
Table 1. Real Value Added by ACPSA Industry: Percent Change from Preceding Period
Table 2. Arts and Cultural Production Nominal Value Added by State, 2015
Table 3. Contributions to Percent of Arts and Cultural Production to Total GDP by State, 2015
Table 4. Contributions to Percent Change in Arts and Cultural Production Value Added by State, 2015
Table 5. Real Gross Output by ACPSA Commodity: Percent Change from Preceding Period
Table 6. Nominal Gross Output by Arts and Cultural Production Industry
Table 7. Real Gross Output by Arts and Cultural Production Commodity
Table 8. Arts and Cultural Production Employment and Compensation by State, 2015
Table 9. Contributions to Percent Change in Arts and Cultural Production Employment by State, 2015