Home > News Release: Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
EMBARGOED UNTIL RELEASE AT 8:30 A.M. EDT, THURSDAY, OCTOBER 29, 2009
BEA 09-47


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Lisa Mataloni: (202) 606-5304 (GDP)
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GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT:  THIRD QUARTER 2009 (ADVANCE ESTIMATE)


      Real gross domestic product -- the output of goods and services produced by labor and property
located in the United States -- increased at an annual rate of 3.5 percent in the third quarter of 2009,
(that is, from the second quarter to the third quarter), according to the "advance" estimate released by the
Bureau of Economic Analysis.  In the second quarter, real GDP decreased 0.7 percent.

      The Bureau emphasized that the third-quarter advance estimate released today is based on source
data that are incomplete or subject to further revision by the source agency (see the box on page 5).  The
"second" estimate for the third quarter, based on more complete data, will be released on November 24,
2009.

      The increase in real GDP in the third quarter primarily reflected positive contributions from
personal consumption expenditures (PCE), exports, private inventory investment, federal government
spending, and residential fixed investment.  Imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of GDP,
increased.

      The upturn in real GDP in the third quarter primarily reflected upturns in PCE, in private
inventory investment, in exports, and in residential fixed investment and a smaller decrease in
nonresidential fixed investment that were partly offset by an upturn in imports, a downturn in state and
local government spending, and a deceleration in federal government spending.

      Motor vehicle output added 1.66 percentage points to the third-quarter change in real GDP after
adding 0.19 percentage point to the second-quarter change.  Final sales of computers subtracted 0.11
percentage point from the third-quarter change in real GDP after subtracting 0.04 percentage point from
the second-quarter change.

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FOOTNOTE.--Quarterly estimates are expressed at
seasonally adjusted annual rates, unless otherwise specified.
Quarter-to-quarter dollar changes are differences between these published
estimates.  Percent changes are calculated from unrounded data and are
annualized.  “Real” estimates are in chained (2005) dollars.  Price indexes
are chain-type measures.

      This news release is available on BEA’s Web site along with the Technical Note and Highlights
related to this release.
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      The price index for gross domestic purchases, which measures prices paid by U.S. residents,
increased 1.6 percent in the third quarter, compared with an increase of 0.5 percent in the second.
Excluding food and energy prices, the price index for gross domestic purchases increased 0.5 percent in
the third quarter, compared with an increase of 0.8 percent in the second.

      Real personal consumption expenditures increased 3.4 percent in the third quarter, in contrast to
a decrease of 0.9 percent in the second.  Durable goods increased 22.3 percent, in contrast to a decrease
of 5.6 percent.  The third-quarter increase largely reflected motor vehicle purchases under the Consumer
Assistance to Recycle and Save Act of 2009 (popularly called, “Cash for Clunkers” Program).
Nondurable goods increased 2.0 percent in the third quarter, in contrast to a decrease of 1.9 percent in
the second.  Services increased 1.2 percent, compared with an increase of 0.2 percent.

      Real nonresidential fixed investment decreased 2.5 percent in the third quarter, compared with a
decrease of 9.6 percent in the second.  Nonresidential structures decreased 9.0 percent, compared with a
decrease of 17.3 percent.  Equipment and software increased 1.1 percent, in contrast to a decrease of 4.9
percent.  Real residential fixed investment increased 23.4 percent, in contrast to a decrease of 23.3
percent.

      Real exports of goods and services increased 14.7 percent in the third quarter, in contrast to a
decrease of 4.1 percent in the second.  Real imports of goods and services increased 16.4 percent, in
contrast to a decrease of 14.7 percent.

      Real federal government consumption expenditures and gross investment increased 7.9 percent
in the third quarter, compared with an increase of 11.4 percent in the second.  National defense increased
8.4 percent, compared with an increase of 14.0 percent.  Nondefense increased 6.8 percent, compared
with an increase of 6.1 percent.  Real state and local government consumption expenditures and gross
investment decreased 1.1 percent, in contrast to an increase of 3.9 percent.

      The change in real private inventories added 0.94 percentage point to the third-quarter change in
real GDP after subtracting 1.42 percentage points from the second-quarter change.  Private businesses
decreased inventories $130.8 billion in the third quarter, following decreases of $160.2 billion in the
second quarter and $113.9 billion in the first.

      Real final sales of domestic product -- GDP less change in private inventories -- increased 2.5
percent in the third quarter, compared with an increase of 0.7 percent in the second.


Gross domestic purchases

      Real gross domestic purchases -- purchases by U.S. residents of goods and services wherever
produced -- increased 4.0 percent in the third quarter, in contrast to a decrease of 2.3 percent in the
second.


Disposition of personal income

      Current-dollar personal income decreased $15.5 billion (0.5 percent) in the third quarter, in
contrast to an increase of $19.1 billion (0.6 percent) in the second.

      Personal current taxes increased $4.8 billion in the third quarter, in contrast to a decrease of
$119.1 billion in the second.  The quarterly pattern of taxes reflected a much smaller decrease in federal
withheld income taxes in the third quarter, based on the quarterly pattern of wages and salaries and a
leveling off of the effects on withholding rates from the Making Work Pay Credit provision of the
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.  (For more information, see the Technical Note.)

      Disposable personal income decreased $20.4 billion (0.7 percent) in the third quarter, in contrast
to an increase of $138.2 billion (5.2 percent) in the second.  Real disposable personal income decreased
3.4 percent, in contrast to an increase of 3.8 percent.

      Personal outlays increased $148.2 billion (5.8 percent) in the third quarter, compared with an
increase of $8.2 billion (0.3 percent) in the second.  Personal saving -- disposable personal income less
personal outlays -- was $364.6 billion in the third quarter, compared with $533.1 billion in the second.
The personal saving rate -- saving as a percentage of disposable personal income -- was 3.3 percent in
the third quarter, compared with 4.9 percent in the second.  For a comparison of personal saving in
BEA’s national income and product accounts with personal saving in the Federal Reserve Board’s flow
of funds accounts and data on changes in net worth, go to http://www.bea.gov/national/nipaweb/Nipa-
Frb.asp.


Current-dollar GDP

      Current-dollar GDP -- the market value of the nation's output of goods and services -- increased
4.3 percent, or $150.3 billion, in the third quarter to a level of $14,301.5 billion.  In the second quarter,
current-dollar GDP decreased 0.8 percent, or $26.8 billion.

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BOX.
     Information on the assumptions used for unavailable source data is provided in a technical note
that is posted with the news release on BEA's Web site.  Within a few days after the release, a detailed
"Key Source Data and Assumptions" file is posted on the Web site.  In the middle of each month, an
analysis of the current quarterly estimate of GDP and related series is made available on the Web site;
click on Survey of Current Business, "GDP and the Economy."
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                       Next release – November 24, 2009, at 8:30 A.M. EST for:
                    Gross Domestic Product:  Third Quarter 2009 (Second Estimate)
                       Corporate Profits:  Third Quarter (Preliminary Estimate)