EMBARGOED UNTIL RELEASE AT 8:30 A.M. EDT, Thursday, May 31, 2018
BEA 18—25

* See the navigation bar at the right side of the news release text for links to data tables,
contact personnel and their telephone numbers, and supplementary materials.

Technical: James Rankin (301) 278-9087 (Personal Income) piniwd@bea.gov
  Harvey Davis (301) 278-9086 (PCE) pce@bea.gov
Media: Jeannine Aversa (301) 278-9003   Jeannine.Aversa@bea.gov
Personal income increased $49.5 billion (0.3 percent) in April according to estimates released today by
the Bureau of Economic Analysis. Disposable personal income (DPI) increased $60.9 billion (0.4 percent)
and personal consumption expenditures (PCE) increased $79.8 billion (0.6 percent).

Real DPI increased 0.2 percent in April and Real PCE increased 0.4 percent. The PCE price index increased
0.2 percent. Excluding food and energy, the PCE price index increased 0.2 percent.

                                                2017                  2018
                                                Dec.     Jan.     Feb.     Mar.     Apr.
                                                  Percent change from preceding month
Personal income:
 Current dollars                                0.4      0.4      0.3      0.2      0.3
Disposable personal income:
 Current dollars                                0.4      0.8      0.3      0.2      0.4
 Chained (2009) dollars                         0.3      0.4      0.1      0.2      0.2
Personal consumption expenditures (PCE):
 Current dollars                                0.5      0.1      0.0      0.5      0.6
 Chained (2009) dollars                         0.3     -0.2     -0.1      0.5      0.4
Price indexes:
 PCE                                            0.1      0.4      0.1      0.0      0.2
 PCE, excluding food and energy                 0.2      0.3      0.2      0.2      0.2

Price indexes:                                  Percent change from month one year ago
 PCE                                            1.7      1.6      1.7      2.0      2.0
 PCE, excluding food and energy                 1.5      1.5      1.5      1.8      1.8

                Quarterly Census of Employment and Wage Data Included in the Fourth Quarter of 2017

This news release includes revised estimates of wages and salaries, personal taxes, and contributions for
government social insurance for October through December 2017 (fourth quarter). These estimates reflect the
incorporation of newly available fourth-quarter wage and salary tabulations from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) program.

The increase in personal income in April primarily reflected increases in wages and salaries, in personal
interest income, and in government social benefit payments to persons, specifically veteran’s benefits and Medicare (table 3).

The $42.8 billion increase in real PCE in April reflected an increase of $15.4 billion in spending for goods
and a $27.5 billion increase in spending for services (table 7). Within goods, spending for gasoline and other
energy goods was a leading contributor to the increase. Within services, the largest contributor to the increase
was spending for household utilities. Detailed information on monthly real PCE spending can be found in Table 2.3.6U.

Personal outlays increased $86.9 billion in April (table 3). Personal saving was $419.6 billion in April and the personal
saving rate, personal saving as a percentage of disposable personal income, was 2.8 percent (table 1).

Updates to Personal Income and Outlays

Estimates have been revised for October through March. The percent change from the preceding month for current-dollar personal
income, and for current-dollar and chained (2009) dollar DPI and PCE -- revised and as published in last month's release -- are
shown below.

                                                        Change from preceding month
                                               February                                    March
                                Previous   Revised   Previous   Revised   Previous   Revised   Previous   Revised
                               (Billions of dollars)      (Percent)      (Billions of dollars)      (Percent)
Personal income:
 Current dollars                    57.1      54.1        0.3       0.3       47.8      40.7        0.3       0.2
Disposable personal income:
 Current dollars                    42.6      41.9        0.3       0.3       39.8      34.0        0.3       0.2
 Chained (2009) dollars             15.9      18.5        0.1       0.1       30.5      25.3        0.2       0.2
Personal consumption expenditures:
 Current dollars                     1.6       5.9        0.0       0.0       61.7      73.9        0.4       0.5
 Chained (2009) dollars            -18.6     -11.8       -0.2      -0.1       50.0      60.5        0.4       0.5

                                Upcoming Annual Update of the National Income and Product Accounts

BEA will release the results of the 15th comprehensive (or benchmark) update of the national income and product accounts (NIPAs)
in conjunction with the second quarter 2018 "advance" estimate on July 27, 2018.  For more information, see the Technical Note.
Details on the planned statistical, definitional, and presentational changes are available in the April Survey of Current Business
article "Preview of the 2018 Comprehensive Update of the National Income and Product Accounts." An article in the September Survey
will describe the estimates in detail.  Revised NIPA table stubs and news release stubs will be available in June.

                                Next release:  June 29, 2018 at 8:30 A.M. EDT
                                   Personal Income and Outlays:  May 2018

                                      Additional Information


Additional Resources available at www.bea.gov:

•	Stay informed about BEA developments by reading the BEA blog, signing up for BEA’s email
        subscription service, or following BEA on Twitter @BEA_News.
•	Historical time series for these estimates can be accessed in BEA’s Interactive Data Application.
•	Access BEA data by registering for BEA’s Data Application Programming Interface (API).
•	For more on BEA’s statistics, see our monthly online journal, the Survey of Current Business.
•	BEA's news release scheduleNIPA Handbook:  Concepts and Methods of the U.S. National Income and Product Accounts


Personal income is the income received by, or on behalf of, all persons from all sources:  from
participation as laborers in production, from owning a home or business, from the ownership of
financial assets, and from government and business in the form of transfers. It includes income from
domestic sources as well as the rest of world. It does not include realized or unrealized capital gains or

Disposable personal income is the income available to persons for spending or saving. It is equal to
personal income less personal current taxes.

Personal consumption expenditures (PCE) is the value of the goods and services purchased by, or on the
behalf of, “persons” who reside in the United States.

Personal outlays is the sum of PCE, personal interest payments, and personal current transfer payments.

Personal saving is personal income less personal outlays and personal current taxes.

The personal saving rate is personal saving as a percentage of disposable personal income.

Current-dollar estimates are valued in the prices of the period when the transactions occurred—that is,
at “market value.” Also referred to as “nominal estimates” or as “current-price estimates.”

Real values are inflation-adjusted estimates—that is, estimates that exclude the effects of price changes.

For more definitions, see the Glossary: National Income and Product Accounts.

Statistical conventions

Annual rates. Monthly and quarterly values are expressed at seasonally-adjusted annual rates (SAAR).
Dollar changes are calculated as the difference between these SAAR values. For detail, see the FAQ
“Why does BEA publish estimates at annual rates?”

Month-to-month percent changes are calculated from unrounded data and are not annualized.

Quarter-to-quarter percent changes are calculated from unrounded data and are displayed at annual
rates. For detail, see the FAQ “How is average annual growth calculated?”

Quantities and prices. Quantities, or “real” volume measures, and prices are expressed as index
numbers with a specified reference year equal to 100 (currently 2009). Quantity and price indexes are
calculated using a Fisher-chained weighted formula that incorporates weights from two adjacent
periods (quarters for quarterly data and annuals for annual data). “Real” dollar series are calculated by
multiplying the published quantity index by the current dollar value in the reference year (2009) and
then dividing by 100. Percent changes calculated from real quantity indexes and chained-dollar levels
are conceptually the same; any differences are due to rounding.

Chained-dollar values are not additive because the relative weights for a given period differ from those
of the reference year.