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News Release: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, 2006

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EMBARGOED UNTIL RELEASE AT 8:30 A.M. EDT, THURSDAY, June 7, 2007
Technical: Clifford Woodruff (202) 606–9234 BEA 07—24
Media: Ralph Stewart (202) 606–2649    
E–mail inquiries: gdpbystate@bea.gov  

STATE ECONOMIC GROWTH WIDESPREAD IN 2006
Advance 2006 and Revised 2003-2005 GDP-by-State Estimates

Newly available data on the state distribution of real GDP growth confirm that economic growth was widespread in 2006, as GDP grew in all states except Michigan, according to estimates released today by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis./1 Growth accelerated for the nation and most states compared with 2005. The ten fastest-growing states are all in three western regions—Rocky Mountain, Southwest or Far West.

Chart 1, showing percent change in rela gdp by state, 2005-2006, by region

 

This release provides NAICS-sector estimates only 6 months after the calendar year for the first time—a 4–month acceleration from previous release schedules./2 It completes the acceleration of the GDP-by-state estimates.

Highlights for 2006

 

Chart 2, showing growth rates in real gdp by state, 1997-2006, by region
NAICS–Sector Growth in 2006

The private services-producing sector continued to account for most of the growth both nationally and regionally in 2006./3 The real estate, rental, and leasing sector was the largest contributor to growth in all BEA regions except the Southwest. Additionally, this sector was the largest contributor to growth for 23 states and the District of Columbia.

Growth in the private services-producing sector was strong in nearly all states; the fastest-growing states tended to be those with strong growth in the private goods-producing sector as well./4 Idaho had the fastest growth of all states in 2006 (7.4 percent), with the durable goods manufacturing sector accounting for 31 percent of the growth. For the fastest–growing states of New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas, durable goods manufacturing accounted for more than 20 percent of growth. For Oklahoma, another of the fastest–growing states, mining accounted for 31 percent of growth. Michigan was the only state to decline in 2006 (–0.5 percent) due to declines in many sectors, particularly construction.

Per Capita Real GDP by State for 2006

Delaware led the nation with the highest per capita real GDP of $59,288. This is 57 percent above the national average. Delaware's ranking can be tied to its large concentration in the finance and insurance sector, a highly capitalized sector in this state. The second highest–ranked state was Connecticut at 33 percent above the national average. The top ten states were all ranked in the top ten in 2005, although several states traded places.

Mississippi's per capita real GDP by state of $24,062 was the lowest in the nation. This is 36 percent below the national average. The bottom ten states were all ranked in the bottom ten in 2005, although several states traded places.

Per Capita Real GDP by State, 2006*
States with the highest per capita States with the lowest per capita
  Per capita real GDP by state (dollars) Rank in the U.S. Percent of the U.S.   Per capita real GDP by state (dollars) Rank in the U.S. Percent of the U.S.
* Advance Estimates Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
United States37,714 ....... 100 United States37,714 ....... 100
 
Delaware 59,288 1 157 Idaho 30,896 41 82
Connecticut 50,332 2 133 Maine 30,305 42 80
Massachusetts 46,721 3 124 Kentucky 29,842 43 79
New York 46,617 4 124 Alabama 29,697 44 79
New Jersey 44,885 5 119 South Carolina 29,642 45 79
Alaska 43,748 6 116 Oklahoma 29,545 46 78
Colorado 41,798 7 111 Montana 27,942 47 74
Virginia 41,702 8 111 Arkansas 27,875 48 74
California 41,663 9 110 West Virginia 24,748 49 66
Minnesota 41,295 10 109 Mississippi 24,062 50 64

 

Revisions to the Estimates for 2003–2005

Overall, the revisions had a moderate impact on relative growth across states. The first–time accelerated industry estimates for 2005, released October 26, 2006, indicated successfully whether a state's growth was high or low (relative to national growth) for nearly 80 percent of the states.

For 2003–2005, the annual revisions to percent change were less than or equal to three percentage points, in absolute terms. Many of the revisions were less than one percentage point.

The revisions to the GDP–by–state estimates for 2003–2005 incorporate new data from the U.S. Census Bureau, specifically the Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) for 2005 and the State and Local Government Finance data for 2004. These estimates also incorporate the annual revision to BEA's GDP–by–industry estimates released April 24, 2007 and state personal income estimates for 2003–2005 released March 27, 2007.

Tables 1–5 show these results in more detail; complete detail is available on BEA's Web site at www.bea.gov.

BEA's national, international, regional, and industry estimates; the Survey of Current Business; and BEA news releases are available without charge on BEA's Web site at www.bea.gov. By visiting the site, you can also subscribe to receive free e–mail summaries of BEA releases and announcements.

 

Advance Estimates of GDP by State for 2006 by NAICS Sector

The 2006 advance estimates are based primarily on preliminary earnings by industry estimates from BEA's regional economic accounts released March 27, 2007 and on the advance GDP–by–industry estimates from BEA's annual industry accounts released April 24, 2007. For the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting and mining industries, research performed over the past year showed that, by incorporating alternative data sources, the accuracy of the advance estimates for these two industries was significantly improved. Hence, preliminary farm sector cash receipts data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are incorporated in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting estimates; and preliminary value of production and price data from the U.S. Department of the Interior and the U.S. Department of Energy are incorporated in the mining estimates.

More information on the methodology used to produce the advance 2006 estimates, on the regular (revised) GDP–by–state estimates for 2003–2005, and on revisions to the GDP–by–state estimates will appear in an article in the July 2007 issue of the Survey of Current Business, BEA's monthly journal.

Explanatory Notes

Definitions

GDP by state is the state counterpart of the Nation's gross domestic product (GDP), the Bureau's featured and most comprehensive measure of U.S. economic activity. GDP by state is derived as the sum of the GDP originating in all the industries in the state.

Real GDP by state is an inflation–adjusted measure based on national prices for the goods and services produced within that state. The estimates of real GDP by state and of quantity indexes with a base year of 2000 were derived by applying national implicit price deflators to the current–dollar GDP–by–state estimates for the 64 detailed NAICS–based industries for years 1997 forward and for the 63 detailed SIC–based industries for years 1977–1997. Then, the chain–type index formula that is used in the national accounts is used to calculate the estimates of total real GDP by state and of real GDP by state at more aggregated industry levels.

The relation of GDP by state to U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

An industry's GDP by state, or its value added, in practice, is calculated as the sum of incomes earned by labor and capital and the costs incurred in the production of goods and services. That is, it includes the wages and salaries that workers earn, the income earned by individual or joint entrepreneurs as well as by corporations, and business taxes such as sales, property, and Federal excise taxes–that count as a business expense.

GDP is calculated as the sum of what consumers, businesses, and government spend on final goods and services, plus investment and net foreign trade. In theory, incomes earned should equal what is spent, but due to different data sources, income earned, usually referred to as gross domestic income (GDI), does not always equal what is spent (GDP). The difference is referred to as the "statistical discrepancy."

Starting with the 2004 comprehensive revision, BEA's annual industry accounts and its GDP–by–state accounts allocate the statistical discrepancy across all private–sector industries. Therefore, GDP–by–state estimates are now conceptually more similar to GDP estimates in the national accounts than they had been in the past.

Except for small differences resulting from the GDP–by–state accounts excluding Federal military and civilian activity located overseas (because it cannot be attributed to a particular state), U.S. growth rates of real GDP by state are nearly identical to GDP–by–industry growth rates when these were originally published in December 2006. The GDP–by–industry growth rates are identical to those from the annual revision of the national income and product accounts (NIPAs) released in July 2006. Due to revisions since July 2006, the national rates of GDP growth in the NIPAs may differ from the U.S. growth rates of real GDP by state.


1See the "Advance Estimates of GDP by State for 2006 by NAICS Sector" section of this release for a detailed description of these estimates.
2NAICS North American Industry Classification System. NAICS sectors comprise the highest level of aggregation of the system and represent general categories of economic activities.
3 The private services–producing sector consists of utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; transportation and warehousing, excluding Postal Service; information; finance and insurance; real estate, rental, and leasing; professional and technical services; management of companies; administrative and waste services; educational services; health care and social assistance; arts, entertainment, and recreation; accommodation and food services; and other services, except government.
4 The private goods–producing sector consists of agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting; mining; construction; and manufacturing.

Table 1. Real GDP by State, 2003-2006
  Millions of chained (2000) dollars Percent change
  2003 2004 2005 2006* 2003 2004 2005 2006* 2006 Rank*
* Advance estimates
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
United States 10,225,679 10,608,934 10,923,951 11,291,375 2.4 3.7 3.0 3.4 .......
   New England 579,651 602,292 611,440 627,027 1.9 3.9 1.5 2.5 .......
     Connecticut 159,456 167,771 171,934 176,406 0.5 5.2 2.5 2.6 33
     Maine 37,340 38,862 39,312 40,050 1.7 4.1 1.2 1.9 41
     Massachusetts 280,881 289,295 292,225 300,753 2.1 3.0 1.0 2.9 27
     New Hampshire 45,887 47,937 48,906 49,527 2.9 4.5 2.0 1.3 46
     Rhode Island 36,488 37,964 38,065 38,746 4.5 4.0 0.3 1.8 43
     Vermont 19,603 20,416 20,930 21,507 3.7 4.1 2.5 2.8 31
   Mideast 1,894,359 1,958,445 2,008,846 2,067,624 2.3 3.4 2.6 2.9 .......
     Delaware 44,886 46,853 49,001 50,601 4.5 4.4 4.6 3.3 21
     District of Columbia 64,660 67,503 69,470 72,321 2.9 4.4 2.9 4.1 .......
     Maryland 198,008 206,320 213,775 219,919 2.3 4.2 3.6 2.9 29
     New Jersey 366,634 375,092 380,499 391,599 2.4 2.3 1.4 2.9 28
     New York 808,396 841,744 870,010 899,993 2.1 4.1 3.4 3.4 18
     Pennsylvania 411,599 420,786 426,032 433,280 2.1 2.2 1.2 1.7 44
   Great Lakes 1,586,730 1,616,268 1,628,913 1,654,188 2.1 1.9 0.8 1.6 .......
     Illinois 479,293 488,016 492,341 507,037 2.8 1.8 0.9 3.0 26
     Indiana 203,459 210,860 210,869 215,025 3.4 3.6 0.0 2.0 40
     Michigan 341,109 338,274 339,507 337,885 1.3 -0.8 0.4 -0.5 50
     Ohio 378,719 388,624 392,872 397,243 1.4 2.6 1.1 1.1 47
     Wisconsin 184,139 190,371 193,162 196,642 2.1 3.4 1.5 1.8 42
   Plains 667,363 687,949 704,451 723,342 2.6 3.1 2.4 2.7 .......
     Iowa 95,254 100,655 103,648 106,346 2.6 5.7 3.0 2.6 32
     Kansas 86,726 88,913 91,508 94,647 1.7 2.5 2.9 3.4 19
     Minnesota 196,738 204,767 207,436 213,377 2.9 4.1 1.3 2.9 30
     Missouri 183,237 186,579 190,502 194,543 1.8 1.8 2.1 2.1 39
     Nebraska 59,859 60,612 63,028 64,440 5.1 1.3 4.0 2.2 37
     North Dakota 19,852 19,930 21,252 21,903 5.5 0.4 6.6 3.1 24
     South Dakota 25,686 26,522 27,023 28,026 1.5 3.3 1.9 3.7 16
   Southeast 2,246,725 2,339,013 2,432,518 2,514,158 2.9 4.1 4.0 3.4 .......
     Alabama 121,564 127,962 132,477 136,576 2.9 5.3 3.5 3.1 23
     Arkansas 70,770 73,925 76,429 78,353 2.7 4.5 3.4 2.5 34
     Florida 520,413 548,141 585,113 609,958 4.6 5.3 6.7 4.2 12
     Georgia 299,661 310,020 320,364 331,129 1.9 3.5 3.3 3.4 20
     Kentucky 117,239 120,100 122,763 125,517 1.5 2.4 2.2 2.2 36
     Louisiana 131,862 138,608 138,815 141,167 1.6 5.1 0.1 1.7 45
     Mississippi 66,556 67,978 68,345 70,032 3.1 2.1 0.5 2.5 35
     North Carolina 286,400 296,090 310,152 323,163 1.4 3.4 4.7 4.2 14
     South Carolina 119,631 120,282 123,738 128,090 3.4 0.5 2.9 3.5 17
     Tennessee 188,517 196,760 201,141 207,257 2.9 4.4 2.2 3.0 25
     Virginia 281,452 295,014 308,830 318,727 3.8 4.8 4.7 3.2 22
     West Virginia 42,636 43,994 44,739 45,003 0.4 3.2 1.7 0.6 49
   Southwest 1,093,130 1,143,484 1,182,397 1,241,674 2.0 4.6 3.4 5.0 .......
     Arizona 174,205 181,132 193,145 206,208 4.4 4.0 6.6 6.8 3
     New Mexico 53,691 57,246 58,860 62,520 4.0 6.6 2.8 6.2 5
     Oklahoma 94,331 97,094 99,084 105,748 1.5 2.9 2.0 6.7 4
     Texas 770,975 808,088 831,785 867,918 1.4 4.8 2.9 4.3 10
   Rocky Mountain 325,368 338,086 353,457 372,759 1.4 3.9 4.5 5.5 .......
     Colorado 176,525 181,582 189,470 198,683 0.6 2.9 4.3 4.9 8
     Idaho 36,474 39,673 42,196 45,308 2.2 8.8 6.4 7.4 1
     Montana 23,316 24,295 25,228 26,395 4.8 4.2 3.8 4.6 9
     Utah 70,158 73,136 76,959 82,512 1.5 4.2 5.2 7.2 2
     Wyoming 18,849 19,390 19,713 20,152 2.5 2.9 1.7 2.2 38
   Far West 1,832,215 1,923,134 2,001,019 2,088,769 2.9 5.0 4.0 4.4 .......
     Alaska 27,402 28,558 29,112 29,314 -2.2 4.2 1.9 0.7 48
     California 1,337,845 1,403,410 1,457,090 1,518,917 3.0 4.9 3.8 4.2 13
     Hawaii 42,580 44,967 46,918 48,955 3.6 5.6 4.3 4.3 11
     Nevada 81,581 89,137 95,418 99,356 5.8 9.3 7.0 4.1 15
     Oregon 117,906 128,032 132,659 139,271 2.5 8.6 3.6 5.0 7
     Washington 224,962 229,219 239,980 253,374 1.7 1.9 4.7 5.6 6


Table 2. Per Capita Real GDP by State, 2003-2006
  Dollars Rank in the U.S. Percent of the U.S.
  2003 2004 2005 2006* 2003 2004 2005 2006* 2003 2004 2005 2006*
* Advance estimates
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
United States 35,164 36,129 36,842 37,714 ....... ....... ....... ....... 100 100 100 100
   New England 40,796 42,291 42,893 43,940 ....... ....... ....... ....... 116 117 116 117
     Connecticut 45,790 48,018 49,114 50,332 2 2 2 2 130 133 133 133
     Maine 28,566 29,577 29,822 30,305 42 41 41 42 81 82 81 80
     Massachusetts 43,618 44,950 45,423 46,721 3 3 3 3 124 124 123 124
     New Hampshire 35,684 36,933 37,424 37,666 16 16 16 17 101 102 102 100
     Rhode Island 33,949 35,186 35,456 36,292 22 20 22 22 97 97 96 96
     Vermont 31,689 32,886 33,629 34,472 34 32 31 29 90 91 91 91
   Mideast 40,200 41,399 42,347 43,509 ....... ....... ....... ....... 114 115 115 115
     Delaware 54,949 56,533 58,214 59,288 1 1 1 1 156 156 158 157
     District of Columbia 111,971 116,441 119,354 124,363 ....... ....... ....... ....... 318 322 324 330
     Maryland 35,958 37,153 38,245 39,161 15 14 14 14 102 103 104 104
     New Jersey 42,471 43,234 43,720 44,885 4 6 6 5 121 120 119 119
     New York 42,020 43,633 45,042 46,617 6 4 4 4 119 121 122 124
     Pennsylvania 33,324 33,996 34,343 34,828 26 27 27 27 95 94 93 92
   Great Lakes 34,634 35,144 35,311 35,746 ....... ....... ....... ....... 98 97 96 95
     Illinois 37,889 38,386 38,568 39,514 10 11 13 13 108 106 105 105
     Indiana 32,860 33,882 33,653 34,058 29 29 30 33 93 94 91 90
     Michigan 33,880 33,514 33,612 33,468 23 30 32 35 96 93 91 89
     Ohio 33,111 33,907 34,250 34,609 27 28 28 28 94 94 93 92
     Wisconsin 33,682 34,620 34,945 35,390 24 24 25 25 96 96 95 94
   Plains 34,094 34,935 35,568 36,272 ....... ....... ....... ....... 97 97 97 96
     Iowa 32,376 34,078 34,951 35,662 30 26 24 24 92 94 95 95
     Kansas 31,802 32,469 33,298 34,242 33 33 34 32 90 90 90 91
     Minnesota 38,889 40,195 40,462 41,295 7 7 9 10 111 111 110 109
     Missouri 32,077 32,432 32,858 33,297 32 34 36 37 91 90 89 88
     Nebraska 34,461 34,695 35,849 36,441 18 23 20 21 98 96 97 97
     North Dakota 31,381 31,343 33,488 34,446 35 37 33 30 89 87 91 91
     South Dakota 33,624 34,436 34,873 35,842 25 25 26 23 96 95 95 95
   Southeast 31,206 32,046 32,842 33,546 ....... ....... ....... ....... 89 89 89 89
     Alabama 27,044 28,326 29,127 29,697 44 45 45 44 77 78 79 79
     Arkansas 25,984 26,913 27,535 27,875 47 47 47 48 74 74 75 74
     Florida 30,645 31,563 32,930 33,718 37 35 35 34 87 87 89 89
     Georgia 34,246 34,697 35,079 35,362 19 22 23 26 97 96 95 94
     Kentucky 28,494 29,007 29,421 29,842 43 42 43 43 81 80 80 79
     Louisiana 29,427 30,831 30,798 32,923 39 38 39 38 84 85 84 87
     Mississippi 23,156 23,500 23,498 24,062 50 50 50 50 66 65 64 64
     North Carolina 34,032 34,707 35,763 36,489 21 21 21 20 97 96 97 97
     South Carolina 28,880 28,675 29,136 29,642 40 43 44 45 82 79 79 79
     Tennessee 32,312 33,431 33,773 34,321 31 31 29 31 92 93 92 91
     Virginia 38,158 39,480 40,827 41,702 9 9 7 8 109 109 111 111
     West Virginia 23,573 24,294 24,662 24,748 49 49 49 49 67 67 67 66
   Southwest 33,027 33,944 34,421 35,267 ....... ....... ....... ....... 94 94 93 94
     Arizona 31,207 31,525 32,445 33,441 36 36 37 36 89 87 88 89
     New Mexico 28,596 30,120 30,561 31,986 41 40 40 40 81 83 83 85
     Oklahoma 26,918 27,561 27,963 29,545 45 46 46 46 77 76 76 78
     Texas 34,832 35,886 36,277 36,920 17 17 19 19 99 99 98 98
   Rocky Mountain 33,585 34,336 35,252 36,439 ....... ....... ....... ....... 96 95 96 97
     Colorado 38,831 39,487 40,630 41,798 8 8 8 7 110 109 110 111
     Idaho 26,673 28,449 29,521 30,896 46 44 42 41 76 79 80 82
     Montana 25,421 26,227 26,989 27,942 48 48 48 47 72 73 73 74
     Utah 29,781 30,203 30,903 32,357 38 39 38 39 85 84 84 86
     Wyoming 37,585 38,356 38,744 39,130 12 12 12 15 107 106 105 104
   Far West 37,170 38,552 39,676 40,952 ....... ....... ....... ....... 106 107 108 109
     Alaska 42,304 43,478 43,893 43,748 5 5 5 6 120 120 119 116
     California 37,722 39,156 40,302 41,663 11 10 10 9 107 108 109 110
     Hawaii 34,184 35,708 36,848 38,083 20 18 17 16 97 99 100 101
     Nevada 36,402 38,215 39,555 39,813 14 13 11 11 104 106 107 106
     Oregon 33,109 35,672 36,456 37,633 28 19 18 18 94 99 99 100
     Washington 36,697 36,938 38,141 39,616 13 15 15 12 104 102 104 105


Table 3. Contributions to Percent Change in Real GDP by State, 2005-2006*
State and region Percent change in real GDP by state Percentage points
Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting Mining Utilities Construction Durable goods manufacturing Nondurable goods manufacturing Wholesale Trade Retail Trade Transportation and warehousing Information Finance and insurance
* Advance estimates
(d) Data are suppressed to avoid disclosure of confidential information.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
United States 3.4 0.05 -0.01 0.02 0.06 0.46 -0.05 0.10 0.27 0.05 0.32 0.34
  New England 2.5 0.02 -0.01 -0.05 -0.18 0.41 0.02 0.22 0.10 0.00 0.22 0.17
     Connecticut 2.6 0.01 -0.01 -0.23 -0.24 0.34 -0.02 0.18 0.18 0.01 0.18 0.24
     Maine 1.9 0.19 0.00 -0.05 -0.09 0.17 0.05 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.12 0.07
     Massachusetts 2.9 0.00 -0.01 0.02 -0.15 0.53 0.04 0.37 -0.01 -0.01 0.32 0.18
     New Hampshire 1.3 0.01 -0.02 0.03 -0.33 0.37 0.03 -0.07 0.20 -0.01 0.10 0.08
     Rhode Island 1.8 0.02 -0.01 0.07 -0.02 -0.02 0.01 -0.08 0.11 0.05 -0.03 -0.01
     Vermont 2.8 -0.07 -0.11 -0.06 -0.17 0.59 -0.03 0.14 0.32 -0.04 0.19 0.13
  Mideast 2.9 0.00 -0.04 -0.04 -0.03 0.11 -0.05 -0.03 0.19 0.04 0.42 0.80
     Delaware 3.3 -0.04 (d) 0.07 (d) 0.29 -0.28 0.36 0.13 -0.02 0.13 0.60
     District of Columbia 4.1 0.00 (d) 0.04 (d) -0.02 -0.03 -0.02 0.07 -0.02 -0.03 0.22
     Maryland 2.9 0.00 0.00 0.02 -0.04 0.03 0.01 -0.01 0.21 0.05 0.22 -0.03
     New Jersey 2.9 0.01 -0.02 0.02 0.01 0.15 0.11 -0.12 0.15 0.03 0.44 0.46
     New York 3.4 0.00 -0.01 0.01 -0.07 0.14 -0.12 -0.03 0.22 0.04 0.59 1.46
     Pennsylvania 1.7 0.02 -0.13 -0.26 0.00 0.07 -0.05 0.01 0.15 0.07 0.25 0.32
  Great Lakes 1.6 0.02 0.00 0.02 -0.19 0.32 -0.02 0.01 0.13 0.09 0.13 0.22
     Illinois 3.0 -0.01 -0.01 0.00 0.02 0.30 -0.02 0.10 0.19 0.20 0.19 0.40
     Indiana 2.0 0.05 0.02 0.06 -0.20 0.46 0.34 0.07 0.22 0.09 0.11 0.08
     Michigan -0.5 0.03 0.04 0.03 -0.48 0.17 -0.12 -0.12 0.05 -0.09 0.13 0.05
     Ohio 1.1 0.03 -0.02 0.04 -0.20 0.36 -0.16 -0.05 0.06 0.16 0.07 0.22
     Wisconsin 1.8 0.02 -0.02 -0.02 -0.21 0.44 0.02 0.05 0.15 -0.01 0.17 0.22
  Plains 2.7 0.18 -0.06 0.03 -0.08 0.38 0.10 0.03 0.19 -0.07 0.23 0.31
     Iowa 2.6 0.25 -0.03 -0.05 0.12 0.37 0.10 -0.01 0.20 0.07 0.26 0.50
     Kansas 3.4 0.24 -0.22 0.09 0.02 0.58 0.14 -0.03 0.29 -0.03 0.47 0.20
     Minnesota 2.9 0.13 0.06 0.00 -0.27 0.34 -0.08 0.14 0.09 -0.28 0.05 0.34
     Missouri 2.1 -0.01 -0.11 0.08 -0.08 0.27 0.27 -0.01 0.24 0.03 0.38 0.16
     Nebraska 2.2 0.46 -0.03 0.06 -0.10 0.47 0.11 -0.05 0.17 -0.14 -0.02 0.17
     North Dakota 3.1 0.66 -0.13 -0.07 0.13 0.35 0.04 0.06 0.37 0.04 0.18 0.24
     South Dakota 3.7 0.38 -0.13 0.04 0.07 0.57 0.25 0.00 0.23 0.14 0.31 1.11
  Southeast 3.4 0.02 -0.01 0.01 0.20 0.37 -0.12 0.13 0.39 0.02 0.26 0.29
     Alabama 3.1 -0.01 -0.28 0.10 0.01 1.02 -0.08 0.12 0.33 0.04 0.13 0.23
     Arkansas 2.5 0.00 -0.06 -0.05 -0.07 0.06 -0.02 0.15 0.33 0.01 0.42 0.16
     Florida 4.2 0.04 -0.03 -0.08 0.49 0.31 0.01 0.19 0.44 0.07 0.28 0.23
     Georgia 3.4 -0.01 -0.08 0.01 -0.05 0.33 0.19 0.09 0.36 -0.08 0.49 0.23
     Kentucky 2.2 0.09 0.11 0.07 -0.26 0.32 0.08 -0.04 0.21 -0.12 0.27 0.31
     Louisiana 1.7 0.05 0.98 -0.08 0.64 0.49 -1.54 0.11 0.63 0.12 0.08 -0.05
     Mississippi 2.5 -0.02 -0.02 -0.17 0.49 0.23 -0.34 0.32 0.78 0.05 0.09 0.09
     North Carolina 4.2 -0.02 -0.04 -0.02 0.17 0.44 -0.12 0.12 0.30 0.02 0.24 1.16
     South Carolina 3.5 0.03 -0.02 0.14 0.30 0.33 -0.19 0.34 0.40 0.04 0.35 0.44
     Tennessee 3.0 0.04 -0.04 0.02 0.08 0.53 -0.05 0.07 0.40 0.09 0.29 0.21
     Virginia 3.2 0.01 0.03 0.12 0.01 0.20 -0.02 0.08 0.27 0.00 0.13 -0.12
     West Virginia 0.6 0.03 -1.83 0.43 0.29 -0.14 -0.21 0.14 0.31 -0.09 0.17 0.15
  Southwest 5.0 0.03 -0.11 0.08 0.39 0.94 -0.04 0.21 0.40 0.11 0.31 0.32
     Arizona 6.8 0.03 0.19 0.14 0.66 0.87 0.06 0.17 0.72 0.14 0.16 0.42
     New Mexico 6.2 0.09 0.98 0.13 0.27 1.72 0.03 0.13 0.25 0.05 0.39 0.05
     Oklahoma 6.7 0.01 2.10 0.17 0.13 0.77 -0.03 0.23 0.34 0.05 0.17 0.20
     Texas 4.3 0.03 -0.52 0.05 0.37 0.93 -0.07 0.22 0.35 0.11 0.36 0.33
  Rocky Mountain 5.5 0.09 0.31 0.26 0.35 0.56 0.04 0.17 0.41 0.11 0.58 0.29
     Colorado 4.9 0.04 0.57 0.39 0.00 0.26 -0.01 0.16 0.21 0.13 0.92 0.21
     Idaho 7.4 0.32 0.15 0.07 0.70 2.31 0.21 0.13 0.81 0.10 0.15 0.41
     Montana 4.6 0.20 0.49 0.26 0.24 0.15 -0.02 0.08 0.40 0.00 0.26 0.29
     Utah 7.2 0.05 0.46 0.09 0.89 0.66 0.11 0.18 0.69 0.05 0.22 0.48
     Wyoming 2.2 0.05 -2.19 0.07 0.91 0.12 0.00 0.31 0.41 0.27 0.13 0.08
  Far West 4.4 0.11 0.00 0.06 0.06 0.75 -0.09 0.19 0.32 0.08 0.44 0.11
     Alaska 0.7 0.00 -0.67 -0.01 -0.45 0.02 -0.01 0.02 0.21 -0.28 0.13 0.14
     California 4.2 0.11 0.02 0.06 -0.02 0.67 -0.13 0.23 0.29 0.09 0.42 0.10
     Hawaii 4.3 0.02 -0.01 0.08 0.09 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.45 0.14 0.25 0.06
     Nevada 4.1 0.01 -0.01 -0.01 0.54 0.26 0.10 0.19 0.46 0.21 -0.13 -0.35
     Oregon 5.0 0.14 -0.03 0.08 0.30 1.99 0.10 0.04 0.37 0.10 0.35 0.28
     Washington 5.6 0.20 0.00 0.05 0.28 1.01 -0.02 0.09 0.47 0.05 0.92 0.23


Table 3. Contributions to Percent Change in Real GDP by State, 2005-2006* (continued)
State and region Percentage points
Real estate, rental, and leasing Professional and technical services Management of companies Administrative and waste services Educational services Health care and social assistance Arts, entertainment, and recreation Accommodation and food services Other services Government
* Advance estimates
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
United States 0.77 0.36 0.01 0.14 0.02 0.24 0.03 0.07 0.02 0.09
  New England 0.65 0.42 0.02 0.11 0.01 0.30 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.10
     Connecticut 0.86 0.25 0.17 0.13 0.04 0.18 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.25
     Maine 0.39 0.16 0.01 0.11 0.00 0.31 0.02 0.08 -0.04 0.11
     Massachusetts 0.67 0.48 -0.04 0.11 -0.01 0.36 -0.02 0.04 0.01 0.05
     New Hampshire -0.03 0.57 -0.26 0.16 0.02 0.34 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.04
     Rhode Island 0.81 0.70 0.27 0.04 0.01 0.13 0.02 -0.01 -0.03 -0.26
     Vermont 0.29 0.67 -0.01 0.03 0.06 0.62 0.04 0.00 -0.01 0.20
  Mideast 0.87 0.35 0.07 0.03 0.02 0.19 0.03 0.05 0.02 -0.08
     Delaware 0.53 -0.15 0.52 0.11 0.08 0.15 0.01 0.04 0.08 0.52
     District of Columbia 1.51 1.12 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.13 0.77
     Maryland 1.12 0.50 0.01 0.10 -0.01 0.25 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.36
     New Jersey 1.16 0.44 -0.05 -0.02 0.01 0.22 0.05 0.06 0.03 -0.23
     New York 0.81 0.27 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.13 0.03 0.06 0.02 -0.21
     Pennsylvania 0.53 0.27 0.17 0.02 0.02 0.30 0.02 0.02 -0.03 -0.10
  Great Lakes 0.52 0.16 -0.03 0.06 0.02 0.19 0.02 0.03 -0.01 -0.15
     Illinois 0.89 0.30 0.03 0.13 0.03 0.18 0.01 0.08 0.01 -0.02
     Indiana 0.43 0.10 -0.04 0.09 0.03 0.18 0.01 0.04 0.02 -0.18
     Michigan 0.19 -0.06 -0.18 -0.07 0.00 0.18 0.01 0.01 -0.05 -0.20
     Ohio 0.32 0.21 -0.02 0.07 0.02 0.22 0.02 0.00 -0.03 -0.22
     Wisconsin 0.63 0.16 0.05 0.09 0.02 0.19 0.06 0.03 -0.01 -0.24
  Plains 0.62 0.24 -0.05 0.11 0.03 0.26 0.05 0.04 0.000.13
     Iowa 0.31 0.13 0.01 0.10 0.00 0.11 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.08
     Kansas 0.40 0.24 0.18 0.36 0.01 0.18 0.02 0.05 -0.02 0.27
     Minnesota 1.18 0.27 -0.06 0.07 0.03 0.53 0.07 0.06 0.03 0.16
     Missouri 0.46 0.24 -0.22 0.05 0.05 0.15 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.12
     Nebraska 0.40 0.31 0.04 0.12 0.03 0.19 0.02 0.00 -0.04 0.05
     North Dakota 0.44 0.37 0.12 0.10 0.02 -0.06 0.00 0.04 -0.04 0.21
     South Dakota 0.19 0.15 -0.04 0.08 0.02 0.28 0.01 0.05 0.02 -0.01
  Southeast 0.73 0.33 -0.01 0.21 0.02 0.21 0.01 0.07 0.02 0.19
     Alabama 0.38 0.35 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.23 0.01 0.05 -0.03 0.39
     Arkansas 0.56 0.18 -0.01 0.06 0.02 0.20 0.01 0.07 0.04 0.48
     Florida 0.89 0.35 0.03 0.47 0.03 0.31 0.03 0.09 0.03 0.06
     Georgia 1.08 0.34 -0.31 0.07 0.07 0.15 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.37
     Kentucky 0.43 0.13 0.03 0.14 -0.02 0.14 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.28
     Louisiana 0.86 0.11 -0.10 0.42 -0.05 -0.2 -0.19 -0.01 0.02 -0.62
     Mississippi 0.54 0.17 0.09 0.27 0.01 0.32 -0.14 -0.30 0.04 -0.02
     North Carolina 0.69 0.31 0.10 0.15 0.05 0.22 0.08 0.07 0.01 0.27
     South Carolina 0.77 0.18 0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.23 -0.01 0.13 -0.03 0.10
     Tennessee 0.52 0.17 0.07 0.15 0.02 0.25 0.09 0.08 0.02 0.04
     Virginia 0.54 0.75 0.07 0.10 0.02 0.22 0.03 0.09 0.05 0.62
     West Virginia 0.81 0.13 0.05 0.06 0.01 0.33 0.00 0.04 -0.02 -0.08
  Southwest 0.74 0.47 0.10 0.26 0.01 0.28 0.06 0.12 0.05 0.26
     Arizona 1.08 0.47 0.04 0.32 0.03 0.58 0.09 0.18 0.09 0.32
     New Mexico 0.70 1.18 0.01 0.12 0.03 0.34 0.00 0.11 0.04 -0.39
     Oklahoma 0.88 0.15 0.29 0.21 0.01 0.24 0.14 0.08 0.03 0.55
     Texas 0.65 0.46 0.09 0.27 0.01 0.22 0.05 0.12 0.05 0.25
  Rocky Mountain 0.71 0.52 0.09 0.17 0.02 0.36 0.06 0.14 0.08 0.14
     Colorado 0.62 0.57 0.06 0.13 0.02 0.25 0.04 0.08 0.04 0.17
     Idaho 0.93 0.40 0.25 0.28 -0.03 0.36 0.11 0.16 0.10 -0.53
     Montana 0.48 0.21 0.03 0.26 0.04 0.54 0.14 0.12 -0.11 0.58
     Utah 1.01 0.66 0.11 0.23 0.05 0.62 0.07 0.18 0.18 0.21
     Wyoming 0.43 0.25 0.08 0.11 0.01 0.16 0.02 0.43 0.25 0.33
  Far West 1.02 0.51 -0.03 0.18 0.01 0.28 0.04 0.10 0.02 0.22
     Alaska 0.37 0.10 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.32 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.70
     California 1.04 0.61 -0.03 0.18 0.01 0.29 0.05 0.08 0.02 0.18
     Hawaii 1.03 0.20 -0.13 0.23 0.02 0.29 0.00 0.24 0.06 1.24
     Nevada 1.38 0.52 -0.31 0.23 0.02 0.21 0.12 0.19 0.11 0.41
     Oregon 0.61 0.17 -0.08 0.14 0.02 0.26 0.02 0.09 0.03 0.00
     Washington 1.03 0.21 0.15 0.20 0.01 0.25 0.04 0.18 0.02 0.22


Table 4. Revisions to Percent Change in Real GDP by State
  2003 2004 2005
  Previously Published Revised Difference (percentage points) Previously Published Revised Difference (percentage points) Previously Published Revised Difference (percentage points)
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
United States 2.6 2.4 -0.2 4.2 3.7 -0.5 3.6 3.0 -0.6
  New England 2.3 1.9 -0.4 4.1 3.9 -0.2 2.3 1.5 -0.8
     Connecticut 0.7 0.5 -0.2 4.4 5.2 0.8 3.2 2.5 -0.7
     Maine 1.9 1.7 -0.2 4.7 4.1 -0.6 1.3 1.2 -0.1
     Massachusetts 2.7 2.1 -0.6 3.6 3.0 -0.6 1.7 1.0 -0.7
     New Hampshire 3.3 2.9 -0.4 5.4 4.5 -0.9 3.2 2.0 -1.2
     Rhode Island 4.4 4.5 0.1 3.7 4.0 0.3 2.0 0.3 -1.7
     Vermont 3.7 3.7 0.0 4.5 4.1 -0.4 2.7 2.5 -0.2
  Mideast 1.9 2.3 0.4 3.9 3.4 -0.5 2.9 2.6 -0.3
     Delaware 4.0 4.5 0.5 5.2 4.4 -0.8 5.4 4.6 -0.8
     District of Columbia 2.3 2.9 0.6 4.7 4.4 -0.3 3.6 2.9 -0.7
     Maryland 2.9 2.3 -0.6 4.7 4.2 -0.5 4.2 3.6 -0.6
     New Jersey 2.3 2.4 0.1 3.1 2.3 -0.8 2.1 1.4 -0.7
     New York 1.4 2.1 0.7 4.5 4.1 -0.4 2.9 3.4 0.5
     Pennsylvania 1.8 2.1 0.3 2.7 2.2 -0.5 2.4 1.2 -1.2
  Great Lakes 2.5 2.1 -0.4 2.0 1.9 -0.1 1.3 0.8 -0.5
     Illinois 2.6 2.8 0.2 2.2 1.8 -0.4 2.1 0.9 -1.2
     Indiana 4.1 3.4 -0.7 3.4 3.6 0.2 1.3 0.0 -1.3
     Michigan 2.4 1.3 -1.1 -0.7 -0.8 -0.1 0.2 0.4 0.2
     Ohio 1.6 1.4 -0.2 3.0 2.6 -0.4 0.9 1.1 0.2
     Wisconsin 2.5 2.1 -0.4 3.1 3.4 0.3 1.5 1.5 0.0
  Plains 2.9 2.6 -0.3 3.4 3.1 -0.3 2.3 2.4 0.1
     Iowa 3.0 2.6 -0.4 4.4 5.7 1.3 1.0 3.0 2.0
     Kansas 1.3 1.7 0.4 3.2 2.5 -0.7 3.9 2.9 -1.0
     Minnesota 3.6 2.9 -0.7 4.6 4.1 -0.5 1.9 1.3 -0.6
     Missouri 2.0 1.8 -0.2 2.6 1.8 -0.8 2.3 2.1 -0.2
     Nebraska 5.5 5.1 -0.4 1.1 1.3 0.2 1.9 4.0 2.1
     North Dakota 5.8 5.5 -0.3 0.3 0.4 0.1 5.3 6.6 1.3
     South Dakota 1.6 1.5 -0.1 3.9 3.3 -0.6 2.9 1.9 -1.0
  Southeast 3.0 2.9 -0.1 4.7 4.1 -0.6 4.6 4.0 -0.6
     Alabama 3.2 2.9 -0.3 5.1 5.3 0.2 4.5 3.5 -1.0
     Arkansas 2.7 2.7 0.0 6.0 4.5 -1.5 2.4 3.4 1.0
     Florida 4.3 4.6 0.3 6.5 5.3 -1.2 7.7 6.7 -1.0
     Georgia 1.8 1.9 0.1 4.6 3.5 -1.1 4.6 3.3 -1.3
     Kentucky 2.4 1.5 -0.9 3.0 2.4 -0.6 3.0 2.2 -0.8
     Louisiana 1.5 1.6 0.1 4.5 5.1 0.6 -1.5 0.1 1.6
     Mississippi 3.6 3.1 -0.5 2.9 2.1 -0.8 2.5 0.5 -2.0
     North Carolina 2.2 1.4 -0.8 2.8 3.4 0.6 4.7 4.7 0.0
     South Carolina 3.1 3.4 0.3 0.6 0.5 -0.1 3.9 2.9 -1.0
     Tennessee 3.6 2.9 -0.7 5.3 4.4 -0.9 3.1 2.2 -0.9
     Virginia 3.7 3.8 0.1 5.8 4.8 -1.0 5.4 4.7 -0.7
     West Virginia 1.0 0.4 -0.6 3.3 3.2 -0.1 2.1 1.7 -0.4
  Southwest 2.1 2.0 -0.1 4.9 4.6 -0.3 5.2 3.4 -1.8
     Arizona 4.7 4.4 -0.3 4.2 4.0 -0.2 9.1 6.6 -2.5
     New Mexico 4.0 4.0 0.0 6.6 6.6 0.0 3.7 2.8 -0.9
     Oklahoma 2.0 1.5 -0.5 3.3 2.9 -0.4 3.3 2.0 -1.3
     Texas 1.4 1.4 0.0 5.1 4.8 -0.3 4.7 2.9 -1.8
  Rocky Mountain 2.2 1.4 -0.8 4.9 3.9 -1.0 5.2 4.5 -0.7
     Colorado 1.4 0.6 -0.8 3.9 2.9 -1.0 4.3 4.3 0.0
     Idaho 3.1 2.2 -0.9 10.1 8.8 -1.3 7.4 6.4 -1.0
     Montana 4.7 4.8 0.1 3.8 4.2 0.4 5.2 3.8 -1.4
     Utah 2.7 1.5 -1.2 5.5 4.2 -1.3 6.8 5.2 -1.6
     Wyoming 3.2 2.5 -0.7 3.7 2.9 -0.8 3.8 1.7 -2.1
  Far West 3.0 2.9 -0.1 5.3 5.0 -0.3 4.4 4.0 -0.4
     Alaska -1.1 -2.2 -1.1 7.2 4.2 -3.0 -0.5 1.9 2.4
     California 3.2 3.0 -0.2 5.2 4.9 -0.3 4.3 3.8 -0.5
     Hawaii 3.6 3.6 0.0 5.0 5.6 0.6 5.3 4.3 -1.0
     Nevada 7.4 5.8 -1.6 7.8 9.3 1.5 9.0 7.0 -2.0
     Oregon 1.6 2.5 0.9 9.6 8.6 -1.0 5.9 3.6 -2.3
     Washington 1.5 1.7 0.2 2.8 1.9 -0.9 3.2 4.7 1.5
                   
Mean 2.8 2.6 -0.2 4.2 3.9 -0.4 3.5 2.9 -0.6
Absolute Mean 2.9 2.7 0.4 4.3 3.9 0.7 3.6 2.9 1.1


Table 5. Current-Dollar GDP by State, 2003-2006
  Millions of dollars Percent of U.S. total
  2003 2004 2005 2006* 2003 2004 2005 2006*
* Advance estimates
Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
United States 10,886,172 11,633,572 12,372,850 13,149,033 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
   New England 612,006 652,357 679,249 714,826 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.4
     Connecticut 169,885 183,873 193,496 204,134 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
     Maine 40,152 43,131 44,906 46,973 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
     Massachusetts 293,840 309,483 320,050 337,570 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6
     New Hampshire 48,198 51,656 54,119 56,276 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
     Rhode Island 39,357 42,213 43,623 45,660 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3
     Vermont 20,575 22,002 23,056 24,213 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
   Mideast 2,013,636 2,141,324 2,258,984 2,391,253 18.5 18.4 18.3 18.2
     Delaware 48,587 52,454 56,731 60,361 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5
     District of Columbia 71,719 77,782 82,628 87,664 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
     Maryland 213,306 229,158 244,447 257,815 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
     New Jersey 389,077 409,156 427,654 453,177 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.4
     New York 850,243 908,308 961,385 1,021,944 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8
     Pennsylvania 440,704 464,467 486,139 510,293 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9
   Great Lakes 1,683,064 1,760,193 1,823,333 1,908,049 15.5 15.1 14.7 14.5
     Illinois 510,296 534,364 555,599 589,598 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.5
     Indiana 215,434 229,618 236,357 248,915 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9
     Michigan 359,030 363,380 372,148 381,003 3.3 3.1 3.0 2.9
     Ohio 402,399 424,562 442,243 461,302 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5
     Wisconsin 195,904 208,269 216,985 227,230 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7
   Plains 713,213 758,323 797,093 840,506 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.4
     Iowa 102,210 111,626 117,635 123,970 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9
     Kansas 93,560 99,125 105,228 111,699 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8
     Minnesota 208,179 222,628 231,437 244,546 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
     Missouri 195,547 204,733 215,073 225,876 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7
     Nebraska 64,628 67,976 72,242 75,700 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
     North Dakota 21,672 22,715 24,935 26,385 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
     South Dakota 27,418 29,519 30,541 32,330 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2
   Southeast 2,409,888 2,586,036 2,781,655 2,955,468 22.1 22.2 22.5 22.5
     Alabama 130,210 141,702 151,342 160,569 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
     Arkansas 75,685 81,752 87,004 91,837 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
     Florida 559,021 607,201 666,639 713,505 5.1 5.2 5.4 5.4
     Georgia 317,922 337,622 358,365 379,550 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9
     Kentucky 124,892 131,839 138,616 145,959 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
     Louisiana 146,726 162,646 180,336 193,138 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5
     Mississippi 72,259 76,534 79,786 84,225 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6
     North Carolina 306,018 324,622 350,700 374,525 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8
     South Carolina 127,885 132,348 140,088 149,214 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1
     Tennessee 200,279 214,400 224,995 238,029 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
     Virginia 302,540 325,467 350,692 369,260 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8
     West Virginia 46,452 49,903 53,091 55,658 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
   Southwest 1,171,729 1,273,807 1,392,895 1,508,916 10.8 10.9 11.3 11.5
     Arizona 182,011 194,134 212,312 232,463 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8
     New Mexico 57,469 63,861 69,692 75,910 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6
     Oklahoma 103,452 111,400 121,558 134,651 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
     Texas 828,797 904,412 989,333 1,065,891 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.1
   Rocky Mountain 348,184 373,829 405,753 440,018 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3
     Colorado 187,397 198,407 214,337 230,478 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8
     Idaho 38,148 42,697 45,891 49,907 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
     Montana 25,526 27,790 29,915 32,322 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
     Utah 75,428 81,059 88,364 97,749 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
     Wyoming 21,685 23,876 27,246 29,561 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
   Far West 1,934,451 2,087,703 2,233,889 2,389,998 17.8 17.9 18.1 18.2
     Alaska 31,219 34,729 39,394 41,105 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
     California 1,406,511 1,515,453 1,616,351 1,727,355 12.9 13.0 13.1 13.1
     Hawaii 46,441 50,781 54,773 58,307 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
     Nevada 87,828 99,342 110,158 118,399 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9
     Oregon 121,638 135,014 141,831 151,301 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2
     Washington 240,813 252,384 271,381 293,531 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2