Gross Domestic Product by State: Third Quarter 2016
Finance and Insurance Led Growth Across States in the Third Quarter
Real gross domestic product (GDP) increased in 48 states and the District of Columbia in the third quarter of 2016, according to statistics on the geographic breakout of GDP released today by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. Real GDP by state growth ranged from 7.1 percent in South Dakota to –0.1 percent in New Mexico. Finance and insurance; wholesale trade; and information were the leading contributors to U.S. economic growth in the third quarter.
- Finance and insurance grew 9.0 percent in the third quarter of 2016. This industry contributed to growth in every state and the District of Columbia. This industry contributed 2.50 percentage points to the 4.4 percent growth in Delaware, and 1.69 percentage point to the 7.1 percent growth in South Dakota–the fastest growing state.
- Wholesale trade grew 8.3 percent. This industry contributed to growth in every state and the District of Columbia and contributed 0.94 percentage point to the 3.9 percent growth in New Hampshire.
- Information grew 8.6 percent. This industry contributed to growth in every state and the District of Columbia and contributed 0.98 percentage point to the 3.6 percent growth in New York.
- Although agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting was not a significant contributor to GDP growth for the nation, it had an important impact on economic growth in several states in the Plains region. This industry contributed more than 2.0 percentage points to growth in North Dakota and South Dakota, which grew 4.6 percent and 7.1 percent, respectively. This industry also contributed more than 1.2 percentage point to growth in Kansas and Nebraska, which both grew 3.9 percent.
- Mining declined 3.5 percent for the nation. This industry subtracted 1.0 percentage point from growth in New Mexico, which declined 0.1 percent.
- Nondurable-goods manufacturing declined 0.4 percent for the nation. This industry subtracted from growth in 37 states and the District of Columbia.
Upcoming Release and Update of the Gross Domestic Product by State Accounts
Gross domestic product by state statistics for the fourth quarter of 2016 and annual statistics for 2016 will be released on May 11, 2017. At that time, BEA will also release revised statistics for the first quarter of 2013 through the third quarter of 2016. These statistics will incorporate newly available state-level source data.
An article in the February 2017 issue of the Survey of Current Business will provide additional information about today's release.
Next release — May 11, 2017 at 8:30 A.M. EDT for: Gross Domestic Product by State, Fourth Quarter 2016 and Annual 2016
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Gross domestic product (GDP) by state is the market value of goods and services produced by the labor and property located in a state. GDP by state is the state counterpart of the Nation's GDP, the Bureau's featured and most comprehensive measure of U.S. economic activity.
Current-dollar statistics are valued in the prices of the period when the transactions occurred—that is, at "market value." Also referred to as "nominal GDP" or "current-price GDP."
Real values are inflation-adjusted statistics—that is, these exclude the effects of price changes.
Seasonal adjustment and annual rates. Quarterly values are expressed at seasonally-adjusted annual rates (SAAR). For details, see the FAQ "Why does BEA publish estimates at annual rates?"
Quantities and prices. Quantities, or "real" measures, are expressed as index numbers with a specified reference year equal to 100 (currently 2009). Quantity indexes are calculated using a Fisher-chained weighted formula that incorporates weights from two adjacent periods (quarters for quarterly data and annuals for annual data). "Real" dollar series are calculated by multiplying the published quantity index by the current dollar value in the reference year (2009) and then dividing by 100. Percent changes calculated from chained-dollar levels and quantity indexes are conceptually the same; any differences are due to rounding.
Chained-dollar values are not additive because the relative weights for a given period differ from those of the reference year.
Chained-dollar values of GDP by state are derived by applying national chain-type price indexes to the current dollar values of GDP by state for the 21 NAICS-based industry sectors. The chain-type index formula that is used in the national accounts is then used to calculate the values of total real GDP by state and real GDP by state at more aggregated industry levels. Real GDP by state may reflect a substantial volume of output that is sold to other states and countries. To the extent that a state's output is produced and sold in national markets at relatively uniform prices (or sold locally at national prices), real GDP by state captures the differences across states that reflect the relative differences in the mix of goods and services that the states produce. However, real GDP by state does not capture geographic differences in the prices of goods and services that are produced and sold locally.
Relation of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State for the U.S. to GDP in the National Accounts. An industry's GDP by state, or its value added, in practice, is calculated as the sum of incomes earned by labor and capital and the costs incurred in the production of goods and services. That is, it includes the wages and salaries that workers earn, the income earned by individual or joint entrepreneurs as well as by corporations, and business taxes such as sales, property, and Federal excise taxes—that count as a business expense.
GDP is calculated as the sum of what consumers, businesses, and government spend on final goods and services, plus investment and net foreign trade. In theory, incomes earned should equal what is spent, but due to different data sources, the measurement of income earned, usually referred to as gross domestic income (GDI), does not always equal the measurement of what is spent (GDP). The difference is referred to as the "statistical discrepancy."
GDP by state for the U.S. differs from the GDP in the national income and product accounts (NIPAs) and thus from the Industry Economic Accounts' GDP by industry, because GDP by state for the U.S. excludes federal military and civilian activity located overseas, which cannot be attributed to a particular state.
List of News Release Tables
Table 1. Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, 2015:Q1-2016:Q3
Table 2. Contributions to Percent Change in Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, 2016:Q2-2016:Q3
Table 3. Current-Dollar Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, 2015:Q1-2016:Q3