This page provides access to papers and presentations prepared by BEA staff. Abstracts are presented in HTML format; complete papers are in PDF format with selected tables in XLS format. The views expressed in these papers are solely those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis or the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Defining and Measuring the Digital Economy

This paper, made possible by support from the Commerce Department’s National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), describes the work of the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) to develop estimates towards the construction of a new digital economy satellite account. These… Read more

Kevin Barefoot, Dave Curtis, William A. Jolliff, Jessica R. Nicholson, Robert Omohundro
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2018-4

Valuing Owner-Occupied Housing: an empirical exercise using the American Community Survey (ACS) Housing files

In Aten (2017) the rental equivalence method was applied to the owner-occupied housing (OOH) stock in the United States to impute the flow of housing services for the period 2000-2015. The rents were based upon the American Community Survey and were broken into seven types of structure, vintage… Read more

Bettina H. Aten
Published
JEL Code(s)R31
WP2018-3

Is Productivity on Vacation? The Impact of the Digital Economy on the Value of Leisure

Many recent digital innovations (like video games) augment the value of leisure time, which is not captured by GDP. Therefore, the productivity impact of such innovations may be understated. I develop the theoretical foundations for measuring the value of leisure when it is produced using the… Read more

Benjamin R. Bridgman
Published
JEL Code(s)D13, O33
WP2018-1

Experimental Estimates of Wages and Gross Output by Business Size and Industry, 2002-2012

This paper presents experimental estimates of wages and gross output by business size and industry sector for 2002-2012. We find small businesses, those employing less than 100 workers, experienced relatively slower growth between 2002 and 2012 for both wages and gross output compared to larger… Read more

Tina Highfill, Erich H. Strassner
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2017-11

Transatlantic Trade in Services: Investigating Bilateral Asymmetries in EU-U.S. Trade Statistics

The European Union (EU) and the United States are the biggest economic partners in international trade in services in the world, with total bilateral trade in 2015 exceeding EUR 400 billion according to the data reported by Eurostat. The United States accounted for close to 30 percent of total… Read more

Kristy L. Howell, Robert Obrzut, Olaf Nowak
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2017-10

Measuring the "Free" Digital Economy within the GDP and Productivity Accounts

We develop an experimental methodology that values "free" digital content through the lens of a production account and is consistent with the framework of the national accounts. We build upon the work in Nakamura, et al. (2016) by combining marketing- and advertising-supported content and find… Read more

Leonard Nakamura, Jon D. Samuels, Rachel Soloveichik
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2017-9

An Updated Analysis of the Roles of Cost per Case and Treated Prevalence in Health Spending Growth

This report presents data, methods, and findings from a study of the roles of treated disease prevalence (treated prevalence) and cost per person treated (cost per case) on the rate of increase in real per capita health spending by the civilian non-institutional population from 1996 through 2014… Read more

Charles Roehrig, Craig Lake
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2017-8

Imputing Rents to Owner-Occupied Housing by Directly Modelling Their Distribution

The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) makes the official estimates of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPAs).  Two key aggregates in these accounts are the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) and the personal income of households.  The rental value of owner-occupied housing… Read more

Arnold J. Katz
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2017-7

Effect of Mode Choice and Respondent Characteristics on Data Quality: Profiling Respondents to BEA's Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) conducts the Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States, a mandatory enterprise level survey that collects information on the finances and operations of foreign-owned U.S. businesses. Respondents submit data by mail, facsimile, and… Read more

Ricardo Limés
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
P2017-1

Supplemental Poverty Measure: A Comparison of Geographic Adjustments with Regional Price Parities vs. Median Rents from the American Community Survey: An Update

Official poverty statistics are used in the United States to evaluate economic well-being at the national level, and to distribute federal anti-poverty funds across states and urban areas. However, these statistics are based on thresholds or poverty lines that do not take into account geographic… Read more

Trudi J. Renwick, Eric B. Figueroa, Bettina H. Aten
Published
JEL Code(s)C43
WP2017-4