BEA collects three broad sets of data on foreign direct investment in the United States (FDIUS): (1) new investment data, (2) financial and operating data of U.S. affiliates, and (3) balance of payments and direct investment position data. This article presents the first two sets of data; the balance of payments and direct investment position data appear in the articles "The International Investment Position of the United States in 1995", "U.S. International Transactions, First Quarter 1996," and "Direct Investment Positions on a Historical-Cost Basis: Country and Industry Detail for 1995 and Changes in Geographic Composition Since 1982" in this issue of the SURVEY OF CURRENT BUSINESS.
Each of the three data sets focuses on a distinct aspect of FDIUS. The new investment data track U.S. businesses that are newly acquired or established by foreign direct investors, regardless of whether the invested funds were raised in the United States or abroad; the financial and operating data provide a picture of the overall activities of the U.S. affiliates; and the balance of payments and direct investment position data track cross-border transactions and positions of both new and existing U.S. affiliates with their foreign parents.
New investment data.The data on outlays by foreign direct investors to acquire or establish affiliates in the United States are collected in BEA's survey of new FDIUS. The data on investment outlays and on the number and types of investment and investors are on a calendar year basis.
In addition, the new investment survey collects selected data on the operations of the newly acquired or established affiliates. For newly acquired affiliates, these data are for (or as of the end of) the most recent fiscal year preceding the acquisition, and for newly established businesses, they are projected for (or as of the end of) the first year of operation. The data cover the entire operations of the business, irrespective of the percentage of foreign ownership.
Financial and operating data of U.S. affiliates.The data on the overall operations of U.S. affiliates are collected in BEA's annual and benchmark surveys of FDIUS. The data cover U.S. affiliates' balance sheets and income statements, employment and employee compensation, merchandise trade, research and development expenditures, sources of finance, and selected data by State. In addition, the gross product of affiliates is estimated from data reported in the surveys.
Except in benchmark survey years, these data, unlike the new investment data, cover only nonbank affiliates. All data on the overall operations of nonbank U.S. affiliates are on a fiscal year basis. The data cover the entire operations of the U.S. affiliate, irrespective of the percentage of foreign ownership.
Balance of payments and the direct investment position data.These data cover the U.S. affiliate's cross-border transactions and positions with its foreign parent or other members of its foreign parent group and hence focus on the foreign parent's share, or interest, in the affiliate rather than on the affiliate's overall size or level of operations. The major items included in the U.S. balance of payments are direct investment capital flows, direct investment income, royalties and license fees, and other services transactions with the foreign parent group. These data are collected in the quarterly survey of FDIUS.
For a more detailed discussion of the differences between these three sets of data, see "A Guide to BEA Statistics on Foreign Direct Investment in the United States," SURVEY 70 (February 1990): 2937. For a discussion of the data on affiliate operations in comparison with the data on new investment, see the appendix "Sources of Data" in "Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: New Investment in 1994 and Affiliate Operations in 1993," SURVEY 75 (May 1995): 6870.