This page provides access to papers and presentations prepared by BEA staff. Abstracts are presented in HTML format; complete papers are in PDF format with selected tables in XLS format. The views expressed in these papers are solely those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis or the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Measuring Inequality in the National Accounts

This paper provides context for the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) prototype estimates of the distribution of income. It describes measurement questions, such as what concept of income should be used, and a summary of the results for the 2007–2018 period. The paper also presents a… Read more

Dennis J. Fixler, Marina Gindelsky, David Johnson
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2020-3

Measuring Infrastructure in the Bureau of Economic Analysis National Economic Accounts

Infrastructure provides critical support for economic activity, and assessing its role requires reliable measures. This paper provides an overview of U.S. infrastructure data in the National Economic Accounts. After developing definitions of basic, social, and digital infrastructure, we assess… Read more

Jennifer Bennett, Robert Kornfeld, Daniel E. Sichel, David B. Wasshausen
Published
JEL Code(s)E22
WP2020-12

Spending by Condition for the Long-Term Care Population Using Medicaid Claims

Health care spending for the nursing home sector has been an understudied topic despite institutionalized long-term care patients often facing higher mortality rates, having numerous and serious comorbidities, and accounting for over $194 billion dollars in personal health care expenditure just… Read more

Abe C. Dunn, Peter Shieh, Lasanthi Fernando, Charles Roehrig
Published
JEL Code(s)I10
WP2020-10

The Geography of Consumption and Local Economic Shocks: The Case of the Great Recession

Geographic analysis of consumption is often constrained by geographic borders such as counties, but economic agents often cross borders to consume. Using unique card transaction data, we estimate across-county spending flows between firms and consumers for every county in the United States and… Read more

Abe C. Dunn, Mahsa Gholizadeh
Published
JEL Code(s)E20, E24, R12, R20
WP2020-9

Metropolitan Statistical Area Location Choice by Foreign Direct Investors in the United States

The importance of new foreign direct investment as a vehicle for the formation of productive capital has stimulated interest in understanding why multinational enterprises (MNEs) choose particular locations for their investments. Using data from greenfield investments reported on the BEA Survey… Read more

Thomas Anderson
Published
JEL Code(s)F23
BEA-WP2020-6

The Owner-Premium Adjustment in Housing Imputations

This paper describes and alternative to the rental equivalence and the user cost approaches for imputing consumer expenditures on owner-occupied housing services. The alternative uses the estimated value of the dwelling relative to the median value of similar homes as an adjustment to the rental… Read more

Bettina H. Aten, Alan Heston
Published
JEL Code(s)R31
WP2020-7

A Reconciliation of Health Care Expenditures in the National Health Expenditures Accounts and in Gross Domestic Product

This paper provides a detailed reconciliation of the National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA), the official estimates of health care spending in the United States from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and the estimates of health expenditures that are part of gross domestic… Read more

Robert Kornfeld, Micah Hartman, Nathan A. Espinosa, Regina L. Butler, Aaron Catlin
Published
JEL Code(s)E01, I10
WP2020-8

Measuring the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Consumer Spending Using Card Transaction Data

We evaluate the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer spending using daily card transaction data. Overall, we find large effects of this pandemic on sectors such as accommodations and restaurants, which by the second week of March, show declines of around 80 percent and 70… Read more

Abe C. Dunn, Kyle K. Hood, Alexander Driessen
Published
JEL Code(s)E01, E21
WP2020-5

Measuring the Small Business Economy

To better track the overall growth and relative contributions of small business in the U.S. economy, the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis is developing new economic statistics by business size. The paper begins with a description of existing economic statistics for small businesses, including… Read more

Tina Highfill, Richard Cao, Richard Schwinn, Richard Prisinzano, Danny Leung
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2020-4

Energy Efficiency in General Equilibrium with Input-Output Linkages

Industrial activity periodically experiences breakthrough innovations in energy efficiency, but the estimated impacts of these innovations on aggregate energy use are highly varied. We develop a general equilibrium model to investigate whether this variation is determined by the structure of the… Read more

Juan Moreno-Cruz
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2020-1