This page provides access to papers and presentations prepared by BEA staff. Abstracts are presented in HTML format; complete papers are in PDF format with selected tables in XLS format. The views expressed in these papers are solely those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis or the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Measuring the Small Business Economy

To better track the overall growth and relative contributions of small business in the U.S. economy, the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis is developing new economic statistics by business size. The paper begins with a description of existing economic statistics for small businesses, including… Read more

By Tina Highfill, Richard Cao, Richard Schwinn, Richard Prisinzano, Danny Leung

Energy Efficiency in General Equilibrium with Input-Output Linkages

Industrial activity periodically experiences breakthrough innovations in energy efficiency, but the estimated impacts of these innovations on aggregate energy use are highly varied. We develop a general equilibrium model to investigate whether this variation is determined by the structure of the… Read more

By Christopher Blackburn , Juan Moreno-Cruz

Toward Developing Estimates Of U.S. Imports Of Illegal Drugs



This paper explores potential ways to develop experimental estimates of the value of U.S. imports of illegal drugs. It builds on the initial exploration of this topic by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) in Soloveichik (2019), which presents experimental estimates of U.S. domestic… Read more

By Sarah Atkinson

Measuring Trade in Services by Mode of Supply

This paper reviews the efforts of the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) to measure international services categorized by mode of supply. BEA has adopted a survey form that uses an innovative approach to collect information on mode of supply by simply having companies report the percentage of its… Read more

By Michael Mann

Current-Account Asymmetries in U.S.–EU Statistics

The United States and the European Union are the foremost trading partners in the world, with total bilateral current-account transactions exceeding $1.8 trillion in 2017, as reported by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat). In… Read more

By Kristy L. Howell, Jessica Hanson, Robert Obrzut, Olaf Nowak

Investment Funds in the U.S. National Accounts

Investment funds, which include mutual funds, other regulated investment companies, and real estate investment trusts, play an increasingly important role in the U.S. economy, with financial assets of about $23 trillion in 2017. Currently, in the U.S. National Income and Product Accounts (NIPAs… Read more

By Robert Kornfeld

Including Illegal Activity in the U.S. National Economic Accounts

The internationally agreed guidelines for national economic accounts, System of National Accounts 2008 (hereafter referred to as SNA 2008) (United Nations Statistics Division 2008), explicitly recommend that illegal market activity should be included in the measured economy. This recommendation… Read more

By Rachel Soloveichik

Are Medical Care Prices Still Declining? A Systematic Examination of Quality-Adjusted Price Index Alternatives for Medical Care

More than two decades ago a well-known study provided evidence from heart attack treatments suggesting that prices in medical care were actually declining, when appropriately adjusted for quality. Our paper revisits this subject looking at a large number of conditions and more recent and more… Read more

By Seidu Dauda, Abe C. Dunn, Anne E. Hall

Accounting for Improved Brick and Mortar Shopping Experiences:

Brick and mortar retailers spent $484 billion providing “free” shopping experiences in 2016. For example, vehicle dealerships provide “free” test drives, book stores provide “free” book signings and grocery stores provide “free” food samples. To capture the value of “free” shopping experiences,… Read more

By Rachel Soloveichik

Improving the Measure of the Distribution of Personal Income

Developing a national account-based measure of the distribution of income from the commonly used Census based concept of money income has been the subject of earlier research. We use publicly available survey and administrative data to construct a distribution of personal income after enhancing… Read more

By Dennis J. Fixler, Marina Gindelsky, David Johnson