This page provides access to papers and presentations prepared by BEA staff. Abstracts are presented in HTML format; complete papers are in PDF format with selected tables in XLS format. The views expressed in these papers are solely those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis or the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Valuing the U.S. Data Economy Using Machine Learning and Online Job Postings

With the recent proliferation of data collection and uses in the digital economy, the understanding and statistical treatment of data stocks and flows is of interest among compilers and users of national economic accounts. In this paper, we measure the value of own-account data stocks and flows… Read more

J Bayoán Santiago Calderón, Dylan Rassier
Published
JEL Code(s)E22, O3, O51
WP2022-13

First Quarter Wages and Employment by Industry for Small Businesses Using Establishment-Based Size Classes, 2012–2021

Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, disaggregated by number of employees in an establishment, are used to estimate first quarter wages and employment by industry for small, medium, and large businesses between 2012 and 2021. This is the first set of… Read more

Tina Highfill, Richard Cao
Published
JEL Code(s)E01, O51
BEA-WP2022-12

Multinational Firms in the U.S. Economy: Insights from Newly Integrated Microdata

This paper describes the construction of two confidential crosswalk files enabling a comprehensive identification of multinational firms in the U.S. economy. The effort combines firm-level surveys on direct investment conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and the U.S. Census… Read more

Fariha Kamal, Jessica McCloskey, Wei Ouyang
Published
JEL Code(s)F14, F23
WP2022-11

Natural Resource Exploration as Intangible Investment

Natural resources are everywhere, and reported wellbeing is highly correlated with the quantity and quality of natural resource services like weather and biodiversity (Levinson 2012) (MacKerron and Mourato 2013) (Methorst et al. 2021). Yet, natural resources are currently classified as non-… Read more

Rachel Soloveichik
Published
JEL Code(s)E01, O17, Q50
WP2022-9

Measuring the Cost of Open Source Software Innovation on GitHub

Open source software (OSS) is software that anyone can study, inspect, modify, and distribute freely under very limited restrictions, generally attribution. While OSS is vital to virtually all aspects of modern society, there is no standard methodology to satisfactorily measure the scope and… Read more

J Bayoán Santiago Calderón, Carol Robbins, Ledia Guci, Gizem Korkmaz, Brandon L. Kramer
Published
JEL Code(s)C82, E22, H42, L17, O3, O51
WP2022–10

Better Reflecting Transitions in Market Production by Government Functions Over Time: Updating the Classification of State and Local Government Enterprises in the National Income and Product Accounts

Government enterprises are government agencies that operate like market producers by covering a substantial proportion of their operating costs by selling goods and services to the public. The current surplus of state and local government enterprises in the National Income and Product Accounts (… Read more

Tina Highfill
Published
JEL Code(s)C82, E01, H11, H70
WP2022-8

Understanding the uneven growth of Intellectual Property Products investment in the U.S.

Given the attention to intangible capital in studying industry dynamics and aggregate investment trends in the last couple of decades, this paper provides a descriptive analysis of Intellectual Property Products (IPP) as measured in the National Accounts (NIPAs) by the Bureau of Economic… Read more

Dennis J. Fixler, Eva de Francisco
Published
JEL Code(s)E22
WP2022-7

Developing Statistics on the Distribution of State Personal Income: Methodology and Preliminary Results

In recent years, a growing interest in the topic of income inequality has fueled demand for information on the way in which the nation’s prosperity and growth are shared across households, as a complement to published data on total income and output. This paper details the methodology and… Read more

Christian Awuku-Budu, Dirk van Duym
Published
JEL Code(s)D31
WP2022-6

How Should We Measure Infrastructure? The Case of Highways and Streets

The recent debates on infrastructure spending have led to renewed interest in the measurement of infrastructure and its effects on growth and wellbeing. This paper updates estimates of one important type of infrastructure capital—highways and streets. We compare BEA’s capital measures with more… Read more

Robert Kornfeld, Barbara M. Fraumeni
Published
JEL Code(s)E01
WP2022-2

Economies of scope and relational contracts: Exploring global value chains in the automotive industry

Most economic theories of value-chain governance examine one transaction at a time and focus on transaction type as the key determinant of governance. We instead consider several transactions jointly, suggesting that lead firms experience economies of scope in developing relational contracts… Read more

Susan Helper, Abdul Munasib
Published
JEL Code(s)D24
WP2022-5