This page provides access to papers and presentations prepared by BEA staff. Abstracts are presented in HTML format; complete papers are in PDF format with selected tables in XLS format. The views expressed in these papers are solely those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis or the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Metropolitan Statistical Area Location Choice by Foreign Direct Investors in the United States

The importance of new foreign direct investment as a vehicle for the formation of productive capital has stimulated interest in understanding why multinational enterprises (MNEs) choose particular locations for their investments. Using data from greenfield investments reported on the BEA Survey… Read more

Thomas Anderson
Published
JEL Code(s)F23
BEA-WP2020-6

The Owner-Premium Adjustment in Housing Imputations

This paper describes and alternative to the rental equivalence and the user cost approaches for imputing consumer expenditures on owner-occupied housing services. The alternative uses the estimated value of the dwelling relative to the median value of similar homes as an adjustment to the rental… Read more

Bettina H. Aten, Alan Heston
Published
JEL Code(s)R31
WP2020-7

A Reconciliation of Health Care Expenditures in the National Health Expenditures Accounts and in Gross Domestic Product

This paper provides a detailed reconciliation of the National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA), the official estimates of health care spending in the United States from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and the estimates of health expenditures that are part of gross domestic… Read more

Robert Kornfeld, Micah Hartman, Nathan A. Espinosa, Regina L. Butler, Aaron Catlin
Published
JEL Code(s)E01, I10
WP2020-8

Measuring Inequality in the National Accounts

This paper provides context for the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) prototype estimates of the distribu- tion of income. It describes measurement questions, such as what concept of income should be used, and a summary of the results for the 2007–2016 period. The paper also presents a… Read more

Dennis J. Fixler, Marina Gindelsky, David Johnson
Published
Last Updated
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2020-3

Measuring the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Consumer Spending Using Card Transaction Data

We evaluate the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer spending using daily card transaction data. Overall, we find large effects of this pandemic on sectors such as accommodations and restaurants, which by the second week of March, show declines of around 80 percent and 70… Read more

Abe C. Dunn, Kyle K. Hood, Alexander Driessen
Published
JEL Code(s)E01, E21
WP2020-5

Measuring the Small Business Economy

To better track the overall growth and relative contributions of small business in the U.S. economy, the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis is developing new economic statistics by business size. The paper begins with a description of existing economic statistics for small businesses, including… Read more

Tina Highfill, Richard Cao, Richard Schwinn, Richard Prisinzano, Danny Leung
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2020-4

Energy Efficiency in General Equilibrium with Input-Output Linkages

Industrial activity periodically experiences breakthrough innovations in energy efficiency, but the estimated impacts of these innovations on aggregate energy use are highly varied. We develop a general equilibrium model to investigate whether this variation is determined by the structure of the… Read more

Christopher Blackburn , Juan Moreno-Cruz
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2020-1

Toward Developing Estimates Of U.S. Imports Of Illegal Drugs

This paper explores potential ways to develop experimental estimates of the value of U.S. imports of illegal drugs. It builds on the initial exploration of this topic by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) in Soloveichik (2019), which presents experimental estimates of U.S. domestic… Read more

Sarah Atkinson
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2020-2

Measuring Trade in Services by Mode of Supply

This paper reviews the efforts of the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) to measure international services categorized by mode of supply. BEA has adopted a survey form that uses an innovative approach to collect information on mode of supply by simply having companies report the percentage of its… Read more

Michael Mann
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2019-7

Current-Account Asymmetries in U.S.–EU Statistics

The United States and the European Union are the foremost trading partners in the world, with total bilateral current-account transactions exceeding $1.8 trillion in 2017, as reported by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat). In… Read more

Kristy L. Howell, Jessica Hanson, Robert Obrzut, Olaf Nowak
Published
JEL Code(s)None Assigned
WP2019-6