This page provides access to papers and presentations prepared by BEA staff. Abstracts are presented in HTML format; complete papers are in PDF format with selected tables in XLS format. The views expressed in these papers are solely those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis or the U.S. Department of Commerce.

A Reconciliation of Health Care Expenditures in the National Health Expenditures Accounts and in Gross Domestic Product

This paper provides a detailed reconciliation of the National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA), the official estimates of health care spending in the United States from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and the estimates of health expenditures that are part of gross domestic… Read more

By Robert Kornfeld, Micah Hartman, Nathan A. Espinosa, Regina L. Butler, Aaron Catlin
Published
JEL CodeE01, I10

Measuring Inequality in the National Accounts

This paper provides context for the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) prototype estimates of the distribu- tion of income. It describes measurement questions, such as what concept of income should be used, and a summary of the results for the 2007–2016 period. The paper also presents a… Read more

By Dennis J. Fixler, Marina Gindelsky, David Johnson
Published
JEL CodeNone Assigned

Measuring the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Consumer Spending Using Card Transaction Data

We evaluate the economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer spending using daily card transaction data. Overall, we find large effects of this pandemic on sectors such as accommodations and restaurants, which by the second week of March, show declines of around 80 percent and 70… Read more

By Abe C. Dunn, Kyle K. Hood, Alexander Driessen
Published
JEL CodeE01, E21

Measuring the Small Business Economy

To better track the overall growth and relative contributions of small business in the U.S. economy, the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis is developing new economic statistics by business size. The paper begins with a description of existing economic statistics for small businesses, including… Read more

By Tina Highfill, Richard Cao, Richard Schwinn, Richard Prisinzano, Danny Leung
Published
JEL CodeNone Assigned

Energy Efficiency in General Equilibrium with Input-Output Linkages

Industrial activity periodically experiences breakthrough innovations in energy efficiency, but the estimated impacts of these innovations on aggregate energy use are highly varied. We develop a general equilibrium model to investigate whether this variation is determined by the structure of the… Read more

By Christopher Blackburn , Juan Moreno-Cruz
Published
JEL CodeNone Assigned

Toward Developing Estimates Of U.S. Imports Of Illegal Drugs

This paper explores potential ways to develop experimental estimates of the value of U.S. imports of illegal drugs. It builds on the initial exploration of this topic by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) in Soloveichik (2019), which presents experimental estimates of U.S. domestic… Read more

By Sarah Atkinson
Published
JEL CodeNone Assigned

Measuring Trade in Services by Mode of Supply

This paper reviews the efforts of the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) to measure international services categorized by mode of supply. BEA has adopted a survey form that uses an innovative approach to collect information on mode of supply by simply having companies report the percentage of its… Read more

By Michael Mann
Published
JEL CodeNone Assigned

Current-Account Asymmetries in U.S.–EU Statistics

The United States and the European Union are the foremost trading partners in the world, with total bilateral current-account transactions exceeding $1.8 trillion in 2017, as reported by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) and the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat). In… Read more

By Kristy L. Howell, Jessica Hanson, Robert Obrzut, Olaf Nowak
Published
JEL CodeNone Assigned

Investment Funds in the U.S. National Accounts

Investment funds, which include mutual funds, other regulated investment companies, and real estate investment trusts, play an increasingly important role in the U.S. economy, with financial assets of about $23 trillion in 2017. Currently, in the U.S. National Income and Product Accounts (NIPAs… Read more

By Robert Kornfeld
Published
JEL CodeNone Assigned

Including Illegal Activity in the U.S. National Economic Accounts

The internationally agreed guidelines for national economic accounts, System of National Accounts 2008 (hereafter referred to as SNA 2008) (United Nations Statistics Division 2008), explicitly recommend that illegal market activity should be included in the measured economy. This recommendation… Read more

By Rachel Soloveichik
Published
JEL CodeNone Assigned