This page provides access to papers and presentations prepared by BEA staff. Abstracts are presented in HTML format; complete papers are in PDF format with selected tables in XLS format. The views expressed in these papers are solely those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis or the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Valuing 'Free' Media in GDP: An Experimental Approach

‘Free’ consumer entertainment and information from the Internet, largely supported by advertising revenues, has had a major impact on consumer behavior. Some economists believe that gross domestic product (GDP) growth is badly underestimated because GDP excludes online entertainment (… Read more

By Leonard Nakamura, Jon D. Samuels, Rachel Soloveichik

Residual Seasonality in GDP and GDI: Findings and Next Steps

This paper presents the results of a component-by-component review of seasonally adjusted estimates of gross domestic product (GDP) and gross domestic income (GDI), two widely followed economic measures published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). The goal of the review was to test… Read more


Correcting for the 2007 MEPS Discontinuity in Medical Condition Spending and Treated Prevalence

Under a contract with the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), Altarum has updated estimates of spending by medical condition that were first published in 2009 and that covered the years 1996 through 2005. In this update, data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) were used to allocate… Read more

By Charles Roehrig

FDI and the Task Content of Domestic Employment for U.S. Multinationals

Using a unique dataset, we examine how the foreign direct investment activities of U.S. multinational manufacturers are related to the composition of their domestic employment. The analysis is based on a dataset in which Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) firm-level data on the foreign operations… Read more

By Alexis Grimm, Mina Kim

Net Investment and Stocks of Human Capital in the United States, 1975-2013

This study continues the research initiated in Christian (2010, 2014) on measurement of human capital stocks and investment in the United States. It measures a series of human capital stock and net investment from 1975 to 2013, using the lifetime earnings approach of Jorgenson and Fraumeni (1989… Read more

By Michael S. Christian

Allocation of Company Research and Development Expenditures to Industries Using a Tobit Model

This paper uses Census microdata and a regression‐based approach to assign multi‐division firms’ pre‐2008 Research and Development (R&D) expenditures to more than one industry. Since multi‐division firms conduct R&D in more than one industry, assigning R&D to corresponding industries… Read more

By Christian Awuku-Budu, Leo Sveikauskas

Adjusting the Measurement of the Output of the Medical Sector for Quality: A Review of the Literature

The Bureau of Economic Analysis recently created new price indexes for health care in its health care satellite account and now faces the problem of how to adjust them for quality. I review the literature on this topic and divide the articles that created quality-adjusted price indexes for… Read more

By Anne E. Hall

Characteristics of Special Purpose Entities in Measures of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad

Under international guidelines, official statistics on international trade and investment include transactions within multinational enterprises (MNEs) and positions on foreign direct investment. A complicating factor in the interpretation and understanding of the official statistics is the role… Read more

By Dylan Rassier

Headquarter Services in the Global Integration of Production

This study examines knowledge management within multinational enterprises (MNEs) by analyzing whether greater interdependence of production between U.S. parent firms and their foreign subsidiaries increases the provision of headquarter (HQ) services from the home country. The findings suggest… Read more

By Marilyn Ibarra-Caton, Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr.

Structural Transformation, Marketization, and Household Production around the World

We provide evidence on household and market production in 36 countries since 1960. On average the household sector accounts for almost half of total hours worked. As GDP per capita increases, the employment share of household production in total hours worked initially declines and then hardly… Read more

By Benjamin R. Bridgman, Georg Duernecker, Berthold Herrendorf