This page provides access to papers and presentations prepared by BEA staff. Abstracts are presented in HTML format; complete papers are in PDF format with selected tables in XLS format. The views expressed in these papers are solely those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis or the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Is Productivity on Vacation? The Impact of the Digital Economy on the Value of Leisure

Many recent digital innovations (like video games) augment the value of leisure time, which is not captured by GDP. Therefore, the productivity impact of such innovations may be understated. I develop the theoretical foundations for measuring the value of leisure when it is produced using the… Read more

By Benjamin R. Bridgman

Experimental Estimates of Wages and Gross Output by Business Size and Industry, 2002-2012

This paper presents experimental estimates of wages and gross output by business size and industry sector for 2002-2012. We find small businesses, those employing less than 100 workers, experienced relatively slower growth between 2002 and 2012 for both wages and gross output compared to larger… Read more

By Tina Highfill, Erich H. Strassner

Transatlantic Trade in Services: Investigating Bilateral Asymmetries in EU-U.S. Trade Statistics

The European Union (EU) and the United States are the biggest economic partners in international trade in services in the world, with total bilateral trade in 2015 exceeding EUR 400 billion according to the data reported by Eurostat. The United States accounted for close to 30 percent of total… Read more

By Kristy L. Howell, Robert Obrzut, Olaf Nowak

Measuring the "Free" Digital Economy within the GDP and Productivity Accounts

We develop an experimental methodology that values "free" digital content through the lens of a production account and is consistent with the framework of the national accounts. We build upon the work in Nakamura, et al. (2016) by combining marketing- and advertising-supported content and find… Read more

By Leonard Nakamura, Jon D. Samuels, Rachel Soloveichik

An Updated Analysis of the Roles of Cost per Case and Treated Prevalence in Health Spending Growth

This report presents data, methods, and findings from a study of the roles of treated disease prevalence (treated prevalence) and cost per person treated (cost per case) on the rate of increase in real per capita health spending by the civilian non-institutional population from 1996 through 2014… Read more

By Charles Roehrig, Craig Lake

Imputing Rents to Owner-Occupied Housing by Directly Modelling Their Distribution

The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) makes the official estimates of the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPAs).  Two key aggregates in these accounts are the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) and the personal income of households.  The rental value of owner-occupied housing… Read more

By Arnold J. Katz

Effect of Mode Choice and Respondent Characteristics on Data Quality: Profiling Respondents to BEA's Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

Paper presented at the 2017 Joint Statistical Meetings | Baltimore, MD

The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) conducts the Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States, a mandatory enterprise level survey that collects information on the finances and operations of foreign-owned U.S. businesses. Respondents submit data by mail, facsimile, and… Read more

By Ricardo Limés

Supplemental Poverty Measure: A Comparison of Geographic Adjustments with Regional Price Parities vs. Median Rents from the American Community Survey: An Update

Official poverty statistics are used in the United States to evaluate economic well-being at the national level, and to distribute federal anti-poverty funds across states and urban areas. However, these statistics are based on thresholds or poverty lines that do not take into account geographic… Read more

By Trudi J. Renwick, Eric B. Figueroa, Bettina H. Aten

Rental equivalence estimates of national and regional housing expenditures

The Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE) series published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) includes estimates of rent expenditures and owner-occupied housing expenditures for the benchmark year 2001. The main data sources are the Residential Financial Survey (RFS), carried out in… Read more

By Bettina H. Aten

Exploratory Estimates of U.S. International Services by Mode of Supply

This paper presents exploratory estimates of U.S. international supply of services by mode. There is interest in international services by mode partly because government trade negotiators structure agreements around these modes. The estimates are based on statistics on trade in services… Read more

By Michael Mann